Recently, in the Derelict forums
, someone asked me if I wanted him to update his GLFW binding, based on the old Derelict, for the Derelict 2 branch so that I could add it to the trunk. We had a GLFW binding in Derelict before, but removed it due to issues with building the GLFW shared libraries. Derelict, you see, is designed to load shared libraries manually and cannot link with static libs. That was quite some time ago. In the intervening years, a new maintainer has taken over the GLFW project and made some improvements to it.
So I've had it in the back of my mind to give GLFW another look at some point for possible inclusion into Derelict 2. Today, I did. A new version was released late last year (2.7) and a new branch that streamlines the API (3.0) has been started. I really like the new branch. So, being the spontaneous sort of fellow I am, I decided I wanted a binding to it. I knocked one up in just over 30 minutes. It's now sitting in my local "scratch" copy of Derelict, waiting to be compiled and tested. Given that it's 1:30 am as I type this, I don't think I'm going to get to it just yet. Tomorrow for sure.
I won't be adding this new binding to the Derelict repository just yet. GLFW 3.0 is still in development. So, just as with the binding I've begun for SDL 1.3 (which will become SDL 2 on release), I'll wait until the C library is nearing a stable release before I check it in.
Making D bindings to C libraries is not a difficult thing to do. It's just tedious if you do it manually, like I do. I have a system I've grown used to now that I've done so many of them. It goes reasonably quick for me. Some people have experimented with automating the process, with mixed results. There are always gotchas that need to be manually massaged, and they might not be easily caught if the whole process is automated. One example is bitfields.
D doesn't support bitfields at the language level. There is a library solution, a template mixin, that Andrei Alexandrescu implemented in the std.bitmanip module
. I don't know how compatible it is with C. I've only had to deal with the issue once, when binding to SDL 1.2, but that was before the std.bitmanip implementation. Besides, it's a D2 only solution and Derelict has to be compatible with both D1 and D2. So what I did was to declare a single integer value of the appropriate size as a place holder. The bits can be pulled out manually if you know the order they are in on the C side. I could have gone further by adding properties to pull out the appropriate bits, but I never did the research into how different C compilers order the bitfields on different platforms.
Another issue that crops up is dealing with C strings. For the most part, it's not a problem, but if you are new to D it's a big gotcha. Like C strings, D strings are arrays of chars (or wchars or dchars as the case may be). But, char strings in D are 8-bit unicode by default. Furthermore, D arrays are more than just a block of memory filled with array values. Each array is conceptually a struct with length and ptr fields. Finally, and this is the big one, D strings are not zero terminated unless they are literals. Zero-terminated string literals are a convenience for passing strings directly to C functions. Given a C function prototype that takes a char*, you can do this:
someCFunc("This D string literal will be zero-terminated and the compiler will do the right thing and pass the .ptr property");
If you aren't dealing with string literals, you need to zero-terminate the string yourself. But there's a library function
that can do that for you:
// the normal way
// or using the Universal Function Call Syntax, which currently only works with D arrays
A lot of D users like the Universal Function Call Syntax and would like to see it work with more types instead of just arrays. Personally, I'm ambivalent. The way it works is that any free function that takes an array as the first argument can be called as if it were a member function of the array.
Going from the C side to the D side, you would use the 'to' template in std.conv
// with the auto keyword, I don't need to declare a char* variable. The compiler will figure out the type for me.
auto cstr = someCFuncThatReturnsACharPtr();
// convert to a D string
auto dstr = to!(string)(cstr);
// templates with one type parameter can be called with no parentheses. So for to, this form is more common.
auto dstr = to!string(cstr);
Another gotcha for new users is what to do with C longs. The D equivalent of nearly all the C integral and floating point types can be used without problem. The exceptions are long and unsigned long. D's long and ulong types are always 64-bit, regardless of platform. When I initially implemented Derelict, I didn't account for this. D2 provides the aliases c_long and c_ulong in core.stdc.config to help get around this issue. They will be the right size on each platform. So if you see 'long' in a C header, the D side needs to declare 'c_long'. I still need to go through a few more Derelict packages to make sure they are used.
The issues that crop up when actually implementing the binding aren't so frequent and are easily dealt with. Sometimes, though, you run into problems when compiling or running applications that bind to C.
D applications can link directly to C libraries without problems, as long as the object format is supported by the compiler. On Linux, this is never an issue. Both DMD and GDC can link with elf objects. Problems arise on Windows, however. The linker DMD uses, OPTLINK, is ancient. It only supports OMF object files, while many libraries are compiled as COFF objects. If you have the source code and you can get it to compile with Digital Mars C++, then you're good to go. Otherwise, you have to use the DigitalMars tool coff2omf, which comes as part of the Digital Mars Extended Utilities Package. Cheap, but not free. Then you still might face the problem that the COFF format output by recent versions of Visual Studio causes the tool to choke. There are other options, but it's all nonsense to me. That's one of the reasons when I made Derelict I decided that it would only bind to libraries that come in shared form and they will be loaded manually. Problem solved. But there are other issues.
In a past update to DMD (not sure which), the flag '--export-dynamic' was added to the DMD config file (sc.ini) on Linux. So that means that every binary you build on Linux systems with DMD has that flag passed automatically to gcc, the backend DMD uses on Linux. Normally, not an issue. Until you try to build a Derelict app. The problem is that Derelict's function pointers are all named the same as the functions in the shared library being bound to. This causes conflicts when the app is built with --export-dynamic on Linux, but they don't manifest until run time in the form of a segfault. Removing the flag from sc.ini solves the problem. One of these days I need to ask on the D newsgroup what the deal with that is.
I know all of this could sound highly negative, giving the impression it's not worth the hassle. But, seriously, that's not the case. I have been maintaining Derelict for seven years now. Many bindings have come and gone. Version 2 currently supports both D1 and D2, as well as the Phobos standard library and the community-driven alternative, Tango. I can say with confidence that D works very well with C the large majority of the time. And for anyone planning to use D to make games, you will need to use C bindings at some level (Derelict
is a good place to start!). As for binding with C++... well, that's another story that someone else will have to tell.