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# The Bag of Holding

## FASTAR

Posted by , 25 November 2012 - · 870 views

300x300 pixels in 480ms.

Just for fun, here's the source of the raytracer as it currently stands:

//
// Some working thought-space for the raytracer project for R14
//

type listnode<type T> : list<T> | nothing

structure list<type T> :
T value,
listnode<T> next

structure Point :
real x,
real y,
real z

// TODO - fix type aliases
structure Vector :
real x,
real y,
real z

structure Ray :
Point origin,
Vector direction

structure Sphere :
Point center,

structure Plane :
Point origin,
Vector normal

type Geometry : Sphere | Plane

structure Color :
real r,
real g,
real b

structure Light :
Point location,
Color color,
real intensity

dot : Vector ref v1, Vector ref v2 -> v1.x * v2.x + v1.y * v2.y + v1.z * v2.z [native]
dot : Vector ref v1, Point ref v2 -> v1.x * v2.x + v1.y * v2.y + v1.z * v2.z [native]
dot : Point ref v1, Point ref v2 -> v1.x * v2.x + v1.y * v2.y + v1.z * v2.z [native]

intersect : Plane ref p, Ray ref r -> real t = 100000.0
{
// TODO - implement plane intersection code
}

intersect : Sphere ref s, Ray ref r -> real t = 100000.0 [native]
{
real b = dot(r.direction, r.origin)
real c = dot(r.origin, r.origin) - 1.0
real disc = 4.0 * (b * b - c)

if(disc > 0.0)
{
real distSqrt = sqrt(disc)
real t0 = 0.0
if(b < 0.0)
{
t0 = (-2.0*b - distSqrt) / 2.0
}
else
{
t0 = (-2.0*b + distSqrt) / 2.0
}

real t1 = c / t0

if(t0 > t1)
{
real temp = t0
t0 = t1
t1 = temp
}

if(t1 > 0.0)
{
if(t0 < 0.0)
{
t = t1
}
else
{
t = t0
}
}
}
}

intersect : nothing, Ray ref r -> 100000.0

structure Camera :
Point location,
Vector direction,
real horizontalFOV,
real verticalFOV

structure Scene :
list<Geometry> objects,
list<Light> lights,
Camera camera

test : nothing, Ray ref r, Geometry ref closest -> 100000.0

test : list<Geometry> ref geometry, Ray ref r, Geometry ref closest -> real t = 100000.0
{
real thist = intersect(geometry.value, r)
if(thist < t)
{
t = thist
closest = geometry.value
}

listnode<Geometry> nextnode = geometry.next
real nextt = test(nextnode, r, closest)
if(nextt < t)
{
t = nextt
}
}

findclosesthit : Scene ref scene, Ray ref r, real ref t, Geometry ref closest
{
t = test(scene.objects, r, closest)
}

shade : Scene ref scene, Ray ref r, real t, Sphere ref obj -> Color c = 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
{
real px = r.origin.x + r.direction.x * t
real py = r.origin.y + r.direction.y * t
real pz = r.origin.z + r.direction.z * t

// Hack: assume our intersection point lies on a unit sphere, so the normal == point
Vector normal = px, py, pz
Vector lightdir = 3.0 - px, 3.0 - py, -8.0 - pz
normalize(lightdir)

real i = dot(normal, lightdir)
if(i > 0.0)
{
c.r = i * 0.306
c.g = i * 0.584
c.b = i * 0.816
}
}

trace : Scene ref scene, Ray ref r -> integer c = 0
{
Geometry closestobj = scene.objects.value
real t = 100000.0

findclosesthit(scene, r, t, closestobj)
if(t < 100000.0)
{
Color color = shade(scene, r, t, closestobj)
c = rgb(color)
}
}

structure Point2D :
integer x,
integer y

structure Rect :
integer left,
integer top,
integer right,
integer bottom

structure PaintInfo :
integer hdc,
boolean erase,
Rect paintarea,
boolean restore,
boolean incupdate,
integer reserved0,
integer reserved1,
integer reserved2,
integer reserved3,
integer reserved4,
integer reserved5,
integer reserved6,
integer reserved7

structure WindowClass :
integer Size,
integer Style,
(WindowProc : integer, integer, integer, integer -> integer),
integer ClassExtra,
integer WindowExtra,
integer hInstance,
integer hIcon,
integer hCursor,
integer hBackgroundBrush,
string ClassName,
integer hIconSmall

structure MessageInfo :
integer hwnd,
integer message,
integer wparam,
integer lparam,
integer time,
Point2D point

GetModuleHandle : integer null -> integer handle = 0 [external("Kernel32.dll", "GetModuleHandleW")]
RegisterClassEx : WindowClass wc -> integer16 atom = 0 [external("User32.dll", "RegisterClassExW")]
CreateWindowEx : integer exstyle, string classname, string windowname, integer style, integer x, integer y, integer width, integer height, integer hwndparent, integer hmenu, integer hinstance, integer param -> integer windowhandle = 0 [external("User32.dll", "CreateWindowExW")]
ShowWindow : integer hwnd, integer cmdshow -> integer success = 0 [external("User32.dll", "ShowWindow")]
GetMessage : MessageInfo ref msg, integer hwnd, integer filtermin, integer filtermax -> boolean success = false [external("User32.dll", "GetMessageW")]
TranslateMessage : MessageInfo msg -> boolean success = false [external("User32.dll", "TranslateMessage")]
DispatchMessage : MessageInfo msg -> integer unused = 0 [external("User32.dll", "DispatchMessageW")]
BeginPaint : integer hwnd, PaintInfo ref paintinfo -> integer hdc = 0 [external("User32.dll", "BeginPaint")]
EndPaint : integer hwnd, PaintInfo paintinfo -> integer success = 0 [external("User32.dll", "EndPaint")]
PostQuitMessage : integer exitcode [external("User32.dll", "PostQuitMessage")]
DefWindowProc : integer hwnd, integer msg, integer wparam, integer lparam -> integer ret = 0 [external("User32.dll", "DefWindowProcW")]
DestroyWindow : integer handle -> integer ret = 0 [external("User32.dll", "DestroyWindow")]

LoadCursor : integer hinstance, integer cursorid -> integer cursorhandle = 0 [external("User32.dll", "LoadCursorW")]

MessageBox : integer hwnd, string message, string caption, integer style -> integer ret = 0 [external("User32.dll", "MessageBoxW")]

global
{
buffer RenderedBitmap = 300 * 300 * 4
}

normalize : Vector ref in [native]
{
real length = sqrt(in.x * in.x + in.y * in.y + in.z * in.z)
in.x = in.x / length
in.y = in.y / length
in.z = in.z / length
}

rgb : Color ref c -> integer ret = 0
{
ret += cast(integer, c.b * 255.0)
ret += cast(integer, c.g * 255.0) * 256
ret += cast(integer, c.r * 255.0) * 65536
}

timeGetTime : -> integer ms = 0 [external("WinMM.dll", "timeGetTime")]

entrypoint :
{
Point zero = 0.0, 0.0, 0.0
Vector zero2 = 0.0, 0.0, 0.0

Sphere sphere = zero, 1.0

Color white = 1.0, 1.0, 1.0
Light light = zero, white, 1.0

list<Geometry> objects = sphere, nothing
list<Light> lights = light, nothing

Camera camera = Point(0.0, 0.0, -10.0), Vector(0.0, 0.0, 1.0), 1.0, 1.0

Scene scene = objects, lights, camera

Ray ray = Point(0.0, 0.0, -10.0), zero2

integer startms = timeGetTime()

integer yoffset = 0

integer y = 0
integer x = 0

real rayy = 0.0

while(y < 300)
{
rayy = cast(real, 150 - y) / 300.0
yoffset = (300 - y) * 300
x = 0
while(x < 300)
{
ray.direction.x = cast(real, 150 - x) / 300.0
ray.direction.y = rayy
ray.direction.z = 1.0
normalize(ray.direction)

integer c = trace(scene, ray)
plotpixel(RenderedBitmap, (yoffset + x), c)

++x
}

++y
}

integer endms = timeGetTime()

print("Render complete, time in ms: " ; cast(string, endms - startms))

DisplayWindow()
}

DisplayWindow :
{
integer IDC_ARROW = 32512
integer COLOR_WINDOWFRAME = 6
integer WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW = 13565952
integer CW_USEDEFAULT = -2147483648
integer SW_SHOW = 5
integer MB_ICONEXCLAMATION = 0x30

integer hInstance = GetModuleHandle(0)

WindowClass wc = sizeof(wc), 0, MainWindowProcedure, 0, 0, hInstance, 0, LoadCursor(0, IDC_ARROW), COLOR_WINDOWFRAME, "", "RaytracerClass", 0
RegisterClassEx(wc)

Rect adjusted = 0, 0, 300, 300

ShowWindow(hwnd, SW_SHOW)

Point2D pt = 0, 0
MessageInfo msg = 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, pt

while(GetMessage(msg, 0, 0, 0))
{
TranslateMessage(msg)
DispatchMessage(msg)
}
}

integer size,
integer width,
integer height,
integer16 planes,
integer16 bitcount,
integer compression,
integer sizeimage,
integer xppm,
integer yppm,
integer used,
integer important

SetDIBitsToDevice :
integer hdc,
integer xdest,
integer ydest,
integer width,
integer height,
integer xsrc,
integer ysrc,
integer startscan,
integer scanlines,
buffer ref bits,
integer coloruse
->
integer unused = 0
[external("Gdi32.dll", "SetDIBitsToDevice")]

MainWindowProcedure : integer hwnd, integer message, integer wparam, integer lparam -> integer ret = 0
{
integer WM_PAINT = 15
integer WM_DESTROY = 2
integer DIB_RGB_COLORS = 0

if(message == WM_PAINT)
{
Rect prect = 0, 0, 0, 0
PaintInfo ps = 0, false, prect, false, false, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

integer hdc = BeginPaint(hwnd, ps)

BitmapInfoHeader bitmap = sizeof(bitmap), 300, 300, 1, 32, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
SetDIBitsToDevice(hdc, 0, 0, 300, 300, 0, 0, 0, 300, RenderedBitmap, bitmap, DIB_RGB_COLORS)

EndPaint(hwnd, ps)
}
elseif(message == WM_DESTROY)
{
PostQuitMessage(0)
}
else
{
ret = DefWindowProc(hwnd, message, wparam, lparam)
}
}

Clearly, most of the bulk is boilerplate for interacting with Windows. The actual raytracing logic is pretty compact, and easy to extend via the wonders of Epoch's multiple type dispatch system.

I really don't have much point for this entry except to exude happiness that I managed to get enough of the JIT native code generator working to do most of the heavy lifting in native code instead of using the VM.

I've said this before when neck-deep in LLVM, but I'm seriously pondering just killing off the VM entirely and shifting over to 100% native code generation. It's not terribly hard, just really tedious to get right, and the gains are magnificent.

A couple days ago it was taking 8 seconds to draw the same image that I can now produce in less than half a second. Some of that came from fiddling around in the VM but most of it came from native code execution. The real beast is going to be getting full support for the Epoch type system implemented in native code; I can sort of access structures in the current model but the whole thing is kind of rickety and fragile. It'll take some serious effort to get the JIT code up to a point where it's robust and generalized.

Anyways... enough rambling. It's 3:30 AM and I should probably go to bed.

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