You probably won't understand most, if not all, of the things you need to know to program a computer game. I would say you need to wait at least a couple of years, as you definitely NEED Algebra I and II and Linear, but Calculus does come in handy (not COMPLETELY necessary, but almost). And that is only for the graphics part (which is surprisingly only a small part of programming a game, about 10%). You definitely aren't the first kid out of your age group running over here for advice to implement their "great new idea."
Thats a bit harsh, you don't need more than extremely basic algebra and a bit of trigonometry(allthough for some games trig isn't needed either) to make a 2D game, and that has normally been covered in school by most 13 year olds, (i made my first 2D game when i was 12 using pascal/BGI and my first properly polished 2D game when i was 13 with pascal/x86 asm, it wasn't easy but it was doable, Yes, for 3D games it helps a lot to know linear algebra (it is not necessary though, with solid trig knowledge you can get things working anyway and today there are tons of helpful libraries that abstract away alot of the really nasty math for you, There is also absolutely nothing that prevents the OP from picking up any additional math he needs/wants as he goes along, If he has a decent math teacher he/she will be more than happy to help him out if he has math related questions. (and if his math teacher is crap or far too busy to help students learn(allthough, atleast where i'm from it is a teachers job to help students learn) there are tons of helpful people here on gdnet who can help)
There is no reason to wait, just jump in and get started, he has far more time now when he is young than he'll have later in life.