No clue how it is in the US, but we don't require the criminal records to be revealed to us.
In the United States, an employer may ask if an individual was convicted of a crime which has not been sealed or expunged (it includes both felonies and misdemeanors). They can ask the date and nature of any convictions. They can ask if you are currently out on bail, the subject of a warrant for arrest, or otherwise released pending trial.
Employers cannot ask about non-criminal suits, arrests, settlements, or lawsuits that didn't result in a conviction.
Automatic disqualification based on that information is illegal. Employers can use it to establish a business-related reason if it is considered, as was discussed in the earlier posts above.
If you have only a single conviction on your record, many different felony offenses can be sealed or expunged. Generally it is one or three years after reparations (incarceration or probation) are completed. If that is the OP's only crime of record I strongly recommend doing that when the time is up. Since he is only 18, that time should be up long before earning their bachelor's degree.