There's actually multiple parts when it comes to programming. There's A) the syntax, which is the actual symbols/letters you use to write the code and how that's structured, and then B) there's the standard support libraries, and then C) there are algorithms and data structures.
How closely related are the languages? For example say Python was english, would C++ be chinese? Or are the two more closely related?
For A: Python and C++ have pretty different syntax. Other languages, like C, C++, C#, and Java all have somewhat similar syntax, because they all took some of their syntactical rules from C. Learning the syntax isn't the hard part, though. You can usually pick up on it pretty quickly (when going from one language to another, even if their syntaxes are quite different).
For B: Each language comes with its own standard library. These standard libraries can allow you to do things like reading/writing files, networking, threading, getting input/output from the user, etc. Some languages have support for more things in their standard library, and other languages have less support. C++ offers pretty little in its standard library when compared to Java, C#, and Python. However, if a standard library doesn't support or have something you want, you can always write it yourself in the language you're using. But the more your language's standard library supports, the less time you have to spend reinventing the wheel.
For C: Algorithms and data structures are things that you can transfer from one language to another pretty easily. For example, let's say you have a list of numbers you want to sort. There are lots of algorithms you can use to sort these numbers, some of them being faster or requiring less memory than others. However, the sorting algorithm itself doesn't depend on the language you're using. So once you learn a good sorting algorithm, and you write it in language X, you can transfer that same knowledge to language Y should you ever be working in language Y.
The intimidation has been broken into multiple little peices, thank you for explaining that to me, and for your other response as well. I'm looking forward into at least breaking the ice into a few of these languages before I choose a major. Just the idea of programming seems like a bugged giant from skyrim, one hit and im suddenly on the moon, or a dragon that consistantly circles mindlessly in the sky. What would you suggest to break the ice to programming? Python seems to be the language of choice for a beginner like me, any more friendly nudges in the right direction? How someone should go about learning a language, what to expect?