Yes, defining AS_NO_THREADS disables support for multi-threading and it won't reference the symbols above.
Is it a new installation of MSVC 2012? Have you already compiled other windows applications, or is AngelScript the first project you attempt to compile? Perhaps the Windows SDK hasn't been properly installed, and that is why it doesn't see the symbols.
Another thought is that perhaps you're having the project settings to generate the code for non-multithreaded CRT library. I'm not in front of my home computer at the moment to test this, but I imagine that this may make the compiler not see these symbols in the Windows SDK.
I have successfully compile the PocoProject libraries with it, but it is a new and fully updated copy of MSVC2012. I was using the default settings that came with the AngelScript project that was specifically there for MSVC2012, so it should've already been set-up for using the multithreaded CRT library (but I will check).
Edit: I checked and it is using the multithreaded CRT.
Are you attempting to build a Metro UI application for Windows Store? Or an ordinary Windows desktop application?
I found a link on google that hinted at these functions not being available for the Metro UI. And in fact, by reading the MSDN document carefully it is stated that these versions of the functions are only available for desktop applications. For Windows Store applications the extended versions of the functions must be used instead, i.e. InitializeCriticalSectionEX, CreateSemaphoreEx, and WaitForSingleObjectEx.
Can you try changing the functions to the extended versions and see if that fixes your problem?
I won't touch the Metro UI unless I absolutely have to. I'm creating a desktop application, so I have access to what the W8 apps don't have access to.