They're all different.
For example, the Wii had support from Nintendo for the console's own assembly language, for C and C++. Third parties put together support for compiled C# through Mono, compiled Java, compiled python, and support for various other languages.
The hardware that console makers use is generally well known. They use ARM chips, or PowerPC chips, or some other major chipset. For any common chipset you can find open source tools that will compile targeting that hardware.
The first-party people like Nintendo, Sony, and Microsoft don't really care what languages you use to build your game. They expect that major games will use many different languages.
They care that you are targeting the latest version of the system, that you have included the last round of bug fixes, and otherwise meet their guidelines. But as long as it compiles to a proper executable they really don't care the source language.