I recently submitted an article outlining the steps most common to beginning this process. Currently it is under review and hopefully will be published on this site soon. It will be a series of articles, following the steps I follow, that allows me to generate good, clean code and that I can "See" progress, which keeps me motivated.
The First thing you want to do is create a map that outlines the goals of your game. This will be a small map at first. Then you may want the AH HA effect or "YES" effect.
Create your first image and get it displayed on the screen. This will be your motivation factor. A small goal with a big acheivment effect.
While you think about what to do next, keep on creating your graphic images. If this is your first game, make it 2D. It will make concetrating on your game mechanics easier.
Try placing objects on the screen, Click/Drag and drop these objects.
My articles will contain the complete code for a simple 2D game. Which I hope can become the building blocks for everyone with you question.
Looking forward to reading that article! You will really be helping us a lot, because even tough we will know a lot about C++ and SFML, we get kinda lost on that question, which is 'Where to start?'.
Anyway, I hope your article is going to solve our questions and we were actually planning to make a 2D game, so this is a bullseye!
EDIT : Please post a link to your article in this topic, so I can see it right away. Thanks!