I haven't worked that much with CDT, but I've done small projects and it worked perfectly for me. How do you include the OGL headers? Does ctrl+click (go to definition) work? I haven't used GLFW in ages, so I don't really remember if it did some trick like FreeType or SDL. Eclipse's parser should work if it can find the files. There are settings for configuring which directories it should use, but I don't have Eclipse at work, so I'll be able to help more when I go back home.
Anyway, does the regular <GL/gl.h> work? And aren't you running Eclipse itself? I know there is a plugin that emulates VIM in Eclipse, but I'm not familiar with your setup. The only problems I had with CDT were C++11 features that were not yet supported by the parser, but that may have been fixed already.
Yes, there are alternatives. I personally don't like KDevelop, but it does work pretty well if you can actually configure it to work. I've heard people praise QtCreator, but I haven't used it that much. It seemed quite cable of non-Qt code, and it is quite simple. I'd avoid Code::Blocks, since it is quite basic, but if everything else fails, you can give it a go.