I think you would be making a poor career and life choice if you didn't finish school.
The answer to your question depends on what you define "successful" as. It is certainly possible to develop and release a game on your own time purely utilizing your own ideas and skills. However, the chance of that release becoming commercial success of the order required to serve as a replacement for full-time employment is smaller. It depends both on some measure of chance and some non-trivial measure of the skills you have in the realm of marketing and publicizing your game. If you go this route and the end result is a commercial flop, as is the case with most indie games, you'll find yourself in the potentially awkward position of having a subpar education relative your peers who you may now be competing in the job market against, simply because you need to do something to bring in sufficient sustained income to pay your rent.
There's no reason you should be gathering a team to help you on this game project at this point, you're only just learning the basic skills you'll need to put your game together. You can achieve a huge percentage of the work of making this game on your own, so bringing in other people will only complicate the process for you. Remove that complication and use the extra time it gives you to stay in school. Your future self will probably thank you.
Almost everybody who is technically inclined and/or intelligent has a tendency to develop the notion, at one point during their education, that they don't need school. That they're smart enough already. Most of the time those people are wrong, and the sooner they can be disabused of this notion, the better things will turn out for them in the long run. It sounds like you're going through that phase and you need to work through it -- it's unpleasant, I realize, but you should look for ways to work through the problems and boredom you are facing.
The paper that you linked, for example, is not impressive in any capacity. It's really little more than a large glossary of terms and the definitions you apply to those terms are in some cases wrong and in some cases clearly reflect your own youth and inexperience. It would make a very poor technical reference for anything.
If you're only learning C++ now you have a ways to go before you can really start building a game of any note -- especially since C++ is a very poor choice of first language (and if you already know another language, you could be using that instead to start building games now). Stay in school and work on putting together some games in your spare time. In a few years you'll actually have some games that might be a bit fun and are capable of demonstrating something more than basic core competencies in game development, and not only will that help you along your goal of making this non-player-centric game, but will put you well ahead of many hopeful game developers who will be finishing school and applying for jobs with no games or projects under their belt whatsoever beyond the stuff they were required to do for school.