"diffraction within the sub-layers of surfaces"? Chromatic aberration is a property of the observer's lens, not of the scene itself
Subtle caustics which look like chromatic aberration. Specifically, these "caustics" don't necessarily become effectively evident after reflecting off another surface, but instead they directly hit the eye. I know I'm not using any terms correctly, but at the moment I'm not really focused on exactly what to call it.
The only thing that appears unnatural to me (besides the subtle halos left where you removed the flares) is that the little puddle of water middle-left seems unnaturally dim.
Yes, I did notice I messed that up and I soon fixed it after uploading the picture you see there. Since you've already noticed yourself, I won't upload the fixed version.