Thank you to everyone, over the past 24 hours (when it hasn't been someone telling me I'm asking the 'wrong' questions) I have gained so much understanding. I spent a good hour reading everything Norman Barrows had to say and then did a lot of research on it, all this time I've had no idea that a method and a function were the same thing, except methods are more used in Java and C++ is based on functions, they work the same way with differences based around whether they are related to an object or not. I am appreciative of all the examples given and I'm referring to this thread a lot, which has helped me learn more.
The bolded part is somewhat accurate, but misleading.
In Java, methods are "more used" namely because there are no free functions (that is, functions which are not either methods or associated with a class) in Java in the first place, whereas in C++ there are. I wouldn't use this to distinguish between the two things since saying that they are used in one language but less so in another does not tell you what they are. It's true that the terms "method" and "function" do tend to be used interchangeably, and programmers will understand what you mean if you use them that way, but they aren't quite the same thing, just as "procedures" and "functions" are not the same thing if you're sufficiently pedantic.