In practice, my math is horrible, and in regular usage of C++ and making 2D games, I don't encounter a need for anything more than addition/subtraction, multiplication/division, occasional powers, and a few other things. I especially find multiplications of decimal numbers useful (0.1 * 0.5 = 0.05), and an rudimentary understanding of cartesian coordinates required.
For 2D rotations, you'll have to learn sine, cosine, and tangent, unless your API of choice already handles that for you.
Everyone saying that you need to know alot of math are talking about ideally. The more math you know, the better. Learning math actually stretches your mind and literally increases your intelligence. Knowing more math makes solving problems easier.
For 3D programming, more math is needed. For 3D physics, even more math is needed.
Seriously, my math level is about 6th grade or less - about halfway through Algebra 1. On a regular basis, I don't find myself encountering any problems I can't solve, except for tiny problems maybe once every four months or so that I have to stop and think through and then research online how to solve those kinds of problems. Maybe once a year or so I encounter a large problem that I have to figure out.
99% of my challenges are programming challenges, not math-specific challenges. Just jump in and see what you can accomplish, and in the areas you find your knowledge of math falling short, then make a note to improve in that area. When you encounter a challenge, learn how to solve it. After encountering and relearning that challenge two or three times, you'll remember it in the future.
It is very important to know math - but don't let a lack of it scare you away from learning programming. You're asking a forum of math fanatics how much math you need to know. That's like asking a car salesman how expensive a car you need to buy (Salesman *rubbing hands together*: "How large of a loan can you get?"). You don't want a junker that gives you problems and constantly needs repair work, but you don't need a mercedes either.