One thing that is always confusing me: why do I often see people accessing vectors using "at", but don't have an actual try/catch around it? The only benefit in return for being slow is that you're sure to have an unhandled exception.
I am afraid that is my incompetence showing, I will be reading more in that area for sure. Thank you for pointing it out.
In regards to the viewport, I have not set it. I believe the tutorial covers the matter later on, but the initial stuff seems to all be sans-viewport setting. This is a link to code associated with the tutorial, but not identical as it uses SFML for the window and context. Additionally, I used some elements of code from a small amount further in the tutorial. I had a version of this working in C. I can compile the C code using g++, and it will run fine and create the triangle as intended. In the course of trying to hunt down my problem, I pasted the C code into a project with the same settings as the one the code I posted initially is from, to confirm that I was not fouling up the settings in Eclipse. Pretty much the only thing that I changed in the version above is using std::cout for printing, and adding some more stuff to be printed out, with the major change being rewriting the function to load the shader code (I was working rather late on that one, and cannot honestly recall exactly why I changed it at the time; I may have been dealing with warnings or errors, or it may have been more whimsical, i.e. "let's see if we can write this in C++ now"). If it would help, I can post the C code that I attempted to adapt the above code from. Pretty much all the GLFW and GL code is identical(or was until I spent a bunch of time tinkering with it), with the exception of loading the shaders and the console printing.
** I should state that I am now not 100% sure that Eclipse was actually compiling the C code with g++ and not gcc. Regardless, I can use g++ to compile the C code via the command line and it works as intended, I just figured that I may actually be wrong about my test in Eclipse. There are some details on Eclipse I will need to read more on I see.