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Game Development Dictionary


Hardware


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  Term Name Description

IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) Cable

Not to be confused with, "Integrated Development Environment," this cable connects varius drives to the motherboard allowing data to quickly get from one to the other. It is generally shaped like a ribbon, though round IDE cables do exist.

IHV

Independent Hardware Vendor. A hardware manufacturer that specializes in manufacturing a single type of hardware rather than manufacturing full computer systems.

Interlacing

Because the electron guns that draw pictures on TV screens were initially too slow to draw the screen in one pass, the first lines at the top of the screen would be fading by the time the last lines were drawn, pictures on TVs were drawn using what is known as interlacing. First the odd lines down are drawn (line 1, 3, 5, etc.). Then the even lines are drawn (line 2, 4, 6, etc.). The image shown by one pass is known as a field, and the complete image drawn by two passes is known as a frame. Standard TV broadcasts run at 30 frames per second (fps). In an effort to boost hype for a product, sometimes ads or press releases would state that their game was "60 fields per second", instead of 30 fps. Most computer monitors are non-interlaced as well as many arcade screens.

Interrupt

1. aka Hardware Interrupts: A request for attention from the processor. When the processor receives an interrupt, it suspends its current operations, saves the status of its work, and transfers control to a special routine known as an interrupt handler, which contains the instructions for dealing with the particular situation that caused the interrupt. ex: int 0x09 - keyboard interrupt 2. aka Software interrupts: functions stored in memory by the operating system to be used by programs to facilitate different tasks (aka system calls). ex: int 0x21 in MS-DOS

Joypad

An input device which consists of a button like surface which can usually move in 4 distinct directions and 4 more combinations and is almost exclusively hand-held. Usually used for giving directional information and comes with buttons for action input.

Joystick

An input device which consists of a stick that comes up from a platform which can be hand-held or mounted onto a surface. Usually used for giving directional information and comes with buttons for action input.

LCD

LCD - Liquid Crystal Display. LCD screens are used widely among electronic devices. Probably the most common application of LCD screens, is in Digital Watches. How it works is as follows: Two sheets of clear plastic are pancaked together with a think lair of a substance called Liquid Crystal. When a voltage is applyed, it causes the liquid crystal to turn opaq.

MCA Bus

IBM's PS/2 32-bit expansion bus. In 1987, IBM created the PS/2, with a 32-bit expansion bus, to replace the original PC's ISA 8 bit (and later 16 bit) buses. The MCA bus was patented, so other brands than IBM couldn't use them. That has lead a consortium to create EISA bus. Very few cards are in MCA bus nowadays.

MIPS

Million Instructions Per Second. Measurement of speed for processors.

MMX

An advancement to Intel microprocessors which added 57 new instructions which are designed to handle video, audio, and graphical data more efficiently.

Modem

A shorter term for "modulator/demodulator". This is a device which takes data from a computer and turns it into a series of audio pulses which can be sent over a telephone line; on the receiving end, these pulses are "demodulated" into a copy of the original data. Modern internet devices like ADSL and cable no longer use this exact type of technology, but the term "modem" has been expanded to include these devices.

Net Yaroze

A black Playstaton hobbyist's development kit (which also looks exactly like the regular Playstation & is made by Sony) that enables you to develop your own video games just for the Net Yaroze. But only members can participate. More information can be found at the following address: http://www.scea.sony.com/net/what.htm

Noise Gate

The noise gate is a piece of studio equipment used to control the volume of an audio signal. The original intended purpose of this is to clean up unwanted noise from a recording, but some nice effects can also be achieved using a noise gate. Used simply, the noise gate only allows an audio signal above a certain threshold to play. This can be used to clean up unwanted noise by setting the threshold above the level of the noise. A typical use of the noise gate as an audio effect is to have it controlled by an additional track - for example, a beat supplied by a drum machine. In this case, the gate can be applied over the top of an audio track such as a synth pad, or perhaps vocal 'oohs'. By 'opening' and 'closing' the gate based on the rhythm supplied by another track (which may or may not be audible itself), the track in question is effectively cut up into a nice rythm. This is often used in electronic music, especially Trance. Software noise gates are also available.

PCI BUS

The Periferal Componet Interconnect BUS is used for all types of hardware components, including (non-AGP) video cards, sound cards, extra ports, and others. The slots (generally 3 to 5) are located in the lower left portion of the motherboard (under the AGP BUS) and are white or gray.

PIT

Programmable Interval Timer. A timer present in all PCs with a frequency of 1.193MHz (2^32/3600) with 3 outputs, channel 0 causing IRQ 0 (int 8), channel 1 for memory refresh and channel 2 for the PC Speaker.

PlayStation

A game console made by Sony.

Playstation 2

Playstation 2 is Sony's latest consoleas of 2002. It was the first of the next generation consoles to be released, and gains much of its popularity from thew Final Fantasy series of games it runs. THe PS2 now has online capabilities, and along with Final Fantasy XI, hard drives can be purchased as an expansion for the PS2. The PS2 is powered by a 250MHz Sony/Toshiba CPU, dubbed the "Emotion Machine." You may develop on PS2 using Sony's PS2 SDK for Linux. PS3 is planned to be released in the near future.

PowerPC

A RISC microprocessor designed by IBM and Motorola and Apple. Most well known for its presence inside Macintoshes, although it is quite popular in IBM's server lineup. The most powerful model at the time of this writing is the POWER4 (Server, 64-bit). It has been modified to produce the PPC970 (G5, Desktop, 64-bit) for desktop machines.

PSX

Sony Playstation.

RAID

RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks. Basically you can connect normal IDE drives onto your RAID controller and then select a mode for operation, most controllers at time of writting support 4 modes, stripping (RAID 0), Mirroring (RAID 1), stripping and Mirroring (RAID 0+1) as well as the SPAN mode.

To Use RAID 0 or 1 you need 2 hard drives (any normal IDE), and for 0+1 you need at least 4 drives, while for spanning you can have any number greater then 2.

RAID 1 impoves your proformence by turning your connected hard drives effectively into one large one, as well as sharing the work between them, which doubles the proformence of the drives.

RAID 0 creates and stores a on the fly copy of your first hard disk onto the seccond drive in case of failure.

RAID 0+1, you have a RAID 0 working which is backed up onto other drives which are running in RAID 1.

SPAN connects any number of drives >2 togethor so that they appear as one big drive, however it DOES NOT share work between them like RAID 0, so you don't get a proformence increase.

Sega Genesis

Sega Genesis (AKA: Mega Drive in many parts of the world): A 16-bit videogame system that was made by Sega. Released in the US on the 1st of September in 1989. A second smaller scaled down version was released in 1993 called the Genesis Mark II; as well a company called Majesco released a third system in 1998 called the Mark III. There was also a couple attachments released for the system as well, including a CD ROM drive called the Sega CD (AKA: Mega CD) and a 32 bit adapter named the 32x. Other variations of the Genesis console include a portable hand-held version with a LCD screen called the Sega Nomad and a combination Sega Genesis/Sega CD system named the Sega CDx (Or Multi Mega).

Sega Saturn

Sega's home console, the successor to the Sega Megadrive. It failed due to a lack of developer interest due to the unnecessary complexity of the system; a small but dedicated development scene exists surrounding it much like that surrounding the Megadrive.

SNES

Super Nintendo. (NES, Nintendo Entertainment System). Successor to the NES, this system was 16-bit and the reigning champion for its time period in consoles. (WWW)

Triad

The term given to a pixel in a monitor based on the red, green and blue components that make up each one. In other viewing devices, such as Head Mounted Displays, resolution is often given in triads instead of pixels.

Vertical Retrace

In a CRT, this is the time during which the electron gun is repositioning itself from the lower right to the upper left. It is during this time that proper page flipping is done, so that smooth, tear free animation can be done.


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