Isn't MFC about a decade out of date? Well personally I think it was dreadful even back then, but even if you want to do it the "Microsoft official" way, they've moved on to newer APIs (presumably with the recommendation of using C#).
It's true that Qt works with a modified C++, but it works well I find (and Microsoft have made their own modifications to C++ to get it working with managed code for their more recent APIs anyway, which in my opinion looks messier than what's done in Qt).
Nothing? I'm not convinced you have anything near the full functionality of a UI toolkit in a day Though it is indeed possible to roll something good enough for a simple game.
I have a GUI system in place for my own app that I am working on. Rolled it in less than a day. There is nothing that I can't do with it. So, it is good for what I want (currently games programming).
It depends what the OP is asking for. If he wants to make graphical games, then the next stop is not a GUI toolkit - or indeed, a GUI at all. He's better off learning writing simple games before worrying about that. If he is asking about non-game applications, then he is certainly better off learning to use a standard GUI toolkit.