jefferytitan, on 02 August 2012 - 09:22 PM, said:

I heard reference to applying something backwards. Something about applying it forward makes the system gain energy and blow up. Is that what you mean about advecting backwards?

Yes. Advect all quantities by looking back in time. It makes the simulation more stable. It's discussed in the articles.

There are a couple things that you could have heard. When integrating to solve an ODE, "backwards Euler's" method is common as being the first step towards a more stable system than just using the regular Euler's method -- simple harmonic systems can blow up when using forwards Euler, but backwards is stable. This is loosely related to backwards advection, but not quite the same. Let me add a bit to what Geometrian said:

You're simulating on a grid of values. These values are moving around as time goes on. Imagine a "smoke particle" at position (x,y). At the next time step, it might be moved to position (x+1,y+1). However, it might also wind up at position (x+.9, y+.8). If that's the case, you'll have to spread the particle out to cover neighboring cells since it isn't right on the center of one. Bad news, your particle has just expanded!

Backwards advection works like this. Instead of watching where a quantity at position (x, y) goes, you look to see what winds up every position. So, you look backwards in time from position (x+1,y+1) and see that it mostly comes from, say, (x,y). However, you'll probably wind up interpolating the values from several cells, depending on where the backwards advection points (like forwards advection, it's not likely to point right at the center of a grid cell). Then, you have the value at

*exactly* (x+1,y+1), rather than values spread out all over the place.

Like Geometrian said, this is all explained in the articles, but hopefully I've shown you that it's nothing to be scared of - keep diving in!