No specific languages.
I've tried to understand how Data-Oriented Programming works, but it just doesn't snap into your mind like OOP did.
Also, are there specific languages for DOP, like there is for OOP?
There really isn't anything to get with DOP.
In OOP you think about objects and their relationships. This is fine, but the actual instructions that get generated is not optimal for the way modern machines work. The gap between processor and memory speeds has kept getting bigger. So all these abstractions are not making the best use of the current machine architecture.
DOP still thinks about objects and relationships, but puts more emphasis on the actual data, how it is stored, and how it gets read and written to. You think of things as groups instead of singular objects with their own data. When you have to update 10,000 of something, you can just store all those things in one flat list and update them in one go instead of having to hunt down all the memory locations of that variable across those 10,000 objects.
It's how to program something for machines with massive amounts of slow memory instead of small amounts of fast memory.