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Could not initialize the terrain object


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#1 oldgregg   Members   -  Reputation: 231

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Posted 03 January 2013 - 01:44 PM

Hi guys,

I'm having a big problem here and I can't find why it's happening myself.

 

I'm trying to do the tutorial linked here:

 

 

http://rastertek.com/tertut01.html

But I've also got other code in there for multiple shader management. (you can just ignore that)

The error is thrown in the 'ApplicationSetup.cpp'

 

 

I'm attaching the project below.

 

Thanks in advance!

 

Link to Project:

 

 

http://www.mediafire.com/?4y6s6p66c124jjh



Sponsor:

#2 MJP   Moderators   -  Reputation: 11589

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Posted 03 January 2013 - 02:15 PM

Why don't you just tell us what the error is, and post the relevant code?



#3 oldgregg   Members   -  Reputation: 231

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Posted 03 January 2013 - 02:32 PM

Why don't you just tell us what the error is, and post the relevant code?

Because it's not a compilation error per se.

It just fails to load how it should.

 

The error message is ' Could not initialize the terrain object'

// Create the terrain object.
	m_Terrain = new TerrainHandle;
	if(!m_Terrain)
	{
		MessageBox(hwnd, L"Could not create TerrainHandle object.", L"Error", MB_OK);
		return false;
	}

	// Initialize the terrain object.
	result = m_Terrain->Initialize(m_Direct3D->GetDevice(), "heightmap01.bmp", L"dirt01.dds");
	if(!result)
	{
		MessageBox(hwnd, L"Could not initialize the terrain object.", L"Error", MB_OK);
		return false;
	}

 

That is where it flags the error.

The heightmap01.bmp and dirt01.dds are both in the directory with the code.

 

 

m_Terrain->Initialize:



bool TerrainHandle::Initialize(ID3D11Device* device, char* heightMapFilename, WCHAR* textureFilename)
{
	bool result;


	// Load in the height map for the terrain.
	result = LoadHeightMap(heightMapFilename);
	if(!result)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Normalize the height of the height map.
	NormalizeHeightMap();

	// Calculate the normals for the terrain data.
	result = CalculateNormals();
	if(!result)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Calculate the texture coordinates.
	CalculateTextureCoordinates();

	// Load the texture.
	result = LoadTexture(device, textureFilename);
	if(!result)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Initialize the vertex and index buffer that hold the geometry for the terrain.
	result = InitializeBuffers(device);
	if(!result)
	{
		return false;
	}

	return true;
}

 

 

 

 

 

And finally, the whole TerrainHandle Class so you can see the other methods.


#include "TerrainHandle.h"

TerrainHandle::TerrainHandle()
{
	m_vertexBuffer = 0;
	m_indexBuffer = 0;
	m_heightMap = 0;
	m_Texture = 0;
}

TerrainHandle::~TerrainHandle()
{
}

bool TerrainHandle::Initialize(ID3D11Device* device, char* heightMapFilename, WCHAR* textureFilename)
{
	bool result;


	// Load in the height map for the terrain.
	result = LoadHeightMap(heightMapFilename);
	if(!result)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Normalize the height of the height map.
	NormalizeHeightMap();

	// Calculate the normals for the terrain data.
	result = CalculateNormals();
	if(!result)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Calculate the texture coordinates.
	CalculateTextureCoordinates();

	// Load the texture.
	result = LoadTexture(device, textureFilename);
	if(!result)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Initialize the vertex and index buffer that hold the geometry for the terrain.
	result = InitializeBuffers(device);
	if(!result)
	{
		return false;
	}

	return true;
}

void TerrainHandle::Shutdown()
{
	// Release the texture.
	ReleaseTexture();

	// Release the vertex and index buffer.
	ShutdownBuffers();

	// Release the height map data.
	ShutdownHeightMap();

	return;
}

void TerrainHandle::Render(ID3D11DeviceContext* deviceContext)
{
	// Put the vertex and index buffers on the graphics pipeline to prepare them for drawing.
	RenderBuffers(deviceContext);

	return;
}

int TerrainHandle::GetIndexCount()
{
	return m_indexCount;
}

ID3D11ShaderResourceView* TerrainHandle::GetTexture()
{
	return m_Texture->GetTexture();
}

bool TerrainHandle::LoadHeightMap(char* filename)
{
	FILE* filePtr;
	int error;
	unsigned int count;
	BITMAPFILEHEADER bitmapFileHeader;
	BITMAPINFOHEADER bitmapInfoHeader;
	int imageSize, i, j, k, index;
	unsigned char* bitmapImage;
	unsigned char height;


	// Open the height map file in binary.
	error = fopen_s(&filePtr, filename, "rb");
	if(error != 0)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Read in the file header.
	count = fread(&bitmapFileHeader, sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER), 1, filePtr);
	if(count != 1)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Read in the bitmap info header.
	count = fread(&bitmapInfoHeader, sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER), 1, filePtr);
	if(count != 1)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Save the dimensions of the terrain.
	m_terrainWidth = bitmapInfoHeader.biWidth;
	m_terrainHeight = bitmapInfoHeader.biHeight;

	// Calculate the size of the bitmap image data.
	imageSize = m_terrainWidth * m_terrainHeight * 3;

	// Allocate memory for the bitmap image data.
	bitmapImage = new unsigned char[imageSize];
	if(!bitmapImage)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Move to the beginning of the bitmap data.
	fseek(filePtr, bitmapFileHeader.bfOffBits, SEEK_SET);

	// Read in the bitmap image data.
	count = fread(bitmapImage, 1, imageSize, filePtr);
	if(count != imageSize)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Close the file.
	error = fclose(filePtr);
	if(error != 0)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Create the structure to hold the height map data.
	m_heightMap = new HeightMapType[m_terrainWidth * m_terrainHeight];
	if(!m_heightMap)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Initialize the position in the image data buffer.
	k=0;

	// Read the image data into the height map.
	for(j=0; j<m_terrainHeight; j++)
	{
		for(i=0; i<m_terrainWidth; i++)
		{
			height = bitmapImage[k];
			
			index = (m_terrainHeight * j) + i;

			m_heightMap[index].x = (float)i;
			m_heightMap[index].y = (float)height;
			m_heightMap[index].z = (float)j;

			k+=3;
		}
	}

	// Release the bitmap image data.
	delete [] bitmapImage;
	bitmapImage = 0;

	return true;
}

void TerrainHandle::NormalizeHeightMap()
{
	int i, j;


	for(j=0; j<m_terrainHeight; j++)
	{
		for(i=0; i<m_terrainWidth; i++)
		{
			m_heightMap[(m_terrainHeight * j) + i].y /= 15.0f;
		}
	}

	return;
}

bool TerrainHandle::CalculateNormals()
{
	int i, j, index1, index2, index3, index, count;
	float vertex1[3], vertex2[3], vertex3[3], vector1[3], vector2[3], sum[3], length;
	VectorType* normals;


	// Create a temporary array to hold the un-normalized normal vectors.
	normals = new VectorType[(m_terrainHeight-1) * (m_terrainWidth-1)];
	if(!normals)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Go through all the faces in the mesh and calculate their normals.
	for(j=0; j<(m_terrainHeight-1); j++)
	{
		for(i=0; i<(m_terrainWidth-1); i++)
		{
			index1 = (j * m_terrainHeight) + i;
			index2 = (j * m_terrainHeight) + (i+1);
			index3 = ((j+1) * m_terrainHeight) + i;

			// Get three vertices from the face.
			vertex1[0] = m_heightMap[index1].x;
			vertex1[1] = m_heightMap[index1].y;
			vertex1[2] = m_heightMap[index1].z;
		
			vertex2[0] = m_heightMap[index2].x;
			vertex2[1] = m_heightMap[index2].y;
			vertex2[2] = m_heightMap[index2].z;
		
			vertex3[0] = m_heightMap[index3].x;
			vertex3[1] = m_heightMap[index3].y;
			vertex3[2] = m_heightMap[index3].z;

			// Calculate the two vectors for this face.
			vector1[0] = vertex1[0] - vertex3[0];
			vector1[1] = vertex1[1] - vertex3[1];
			vector1[2] = vertex1[2] - vertex3[2];
			vector2[0] = vertex3[0] - vertex2[0];
			vector2[1] = vertex3[1] - vertex2[1];
			vector2[2] = vertex3[2] - vertex2[2];

			index = (j * (m_terrainHeight-1)) + i;

			// Calculate the cross product of those two vectors to get the un-normalized value for this face normal.
			normals[index].x = (vector1[1] * vector2[2]) - (vector1[2] * vector2[1]);
			normals[index].y = (vector1[2] * vector2[0]) - (vector1[0] * vector2[2]);
			normals[index].z = (vector1[0] * vector2[1]) - (vector1[1] * vector2[0]);
		}
	}

	// Now go through all the vertices and take an average of each face normal 	
	// that the vertex touches to get the averaged normal for that vertex.
	for(j=0; j<m_terrainHeight; j++)
	{
		for(i=0; i<m_terrainWidth; i++)
		{
			// Initialize the sum.
			sum[0] = 0.0f;
			sum[1] = 0.0f;
			sum[2] = 0.0f;

			// Initialize the count.
			count = 0;

			// Bottom left face.
			if(((i-1) >= 0) && ((j-1) >= 0))
			{
				index = ((j-1) * (m_terrainHeight-1)) + (i-1);

				sum[0] += normals[index].x;
				sum[1] += normals[index].y;
				sum[2] += normals[index].z;
				count++;
			}

			// Bottom right face.
			if((i < (m_terrainWidth-1)) && ((j-1) >= 0))
			{
				index = ((j-1) * (m_terrainHeight-1)) + i;

				sum[0] += normals[index].x;
				sum[1] += normals[index].y;
				sum[2] += normals[index].z;
				count++;
			}

			// Upper left face.
			if(((i-1) >= 0) && (j < (m_terrainHeight-1)))
			{
				index = (j * (m_terrainHeight-1)) + (i-1);

				sum[0] += normals[index].x;
				sum[1] += normals[index].y;
				sum[2] += normals[index].z;
				count++;
			}

			// Upper right face.
			if((i < (m_terrainWidth-1)) && (j < (m_terrainHeight-1)))
			{
				index = (j * (m_terrainHeight-1)) + i;

				sum[0] += normals[index].x;
				sum[1] += normals[index].y;
				sum[2] += normals[index].z;
				count++;
			}
			
			// Take the average of the faces touching this vertex.
			sum[0] = (sum[0] / (float)count);
			sum[1] = (sum[1] / (float)count);
			sum[2] = (sum[2] / (float)count);

			// Calculate the length of this normal.
			length = sqrt((sum[0] * sum[0]) + (sum[1] * sum[1]) + (sum[2] * sum[2]));
			
			// Get an index to the vertex location in the height map array.
			index = (j * m_terrainHeight) + i;

			// Normalize the final shared normal for this vertex and store it in the height map array.
			m_heightMap[index].nx = (sum[0] / length);
			m_heightMap[index].ny = (sum[1] / length);
			m_heightMap[index].nz = (sum[2] / length);
		}
	}

	// Release the temporary normals.
	delete [] normals;
	normals = 0;

	return true;
}

void TerrainHandle::ShutdownHeightMap()
{
	if(m_heightMap)
	{
		delete [] m_heightMap;
		m_heightMap = 0;
	}

	return;
}

void TerrainHandle::CalculateTextureCoordinates()
{
	int incrementCount, i, j, tuCount, tvCount;
	float incrementValue, tuCoordinate, tvCoordinate;


	// Calculate how much to increment the texture coordinates by.
	incrementValue = (float)TEXTURE_REPEAT / (float)m_terrainWidth;

	// Calculate how many times to repeat the texture.
	incrementCount = m_terrainWidth / TEXTURE_REPEAT;

	// Initialize the tu and tv coordinate values.
	tuCoordinate = 0.0f;
	tvCoordinate = 1.0f;

	// Initialize the tu and tv coordinate indexes.
	tuCount = 0;
	tvCount = 0;

	// Loop through the entire height map and calculate the tu and tv texture coordinates for each vertex.
	for(j=0; j<m_terrainHeight; j++)
	{
		for(i=0; i<m_terrainWidth; i++)
		{
			// Store the texture coordinate in the height map.
			m_heightMap[(m_terrainHeight * j) + i].tu = tuCoordinate;
			m_heightMap[(m_terrainHeight * j) + i].tv = tvCoordinate;

			// Increment the tu texture coordinate by the increment value and increment the index by one.
			tuCoordinate += incrementValue;
			tuCount++;

			// Check if at the far right end of the texture and if so then start at the beginning again.
			if(tuCount == incrementCount)
			{
				tuCoordinate = 0.0f;
				tuCount = 0;
			}
		}

		// Increment the tv texture coordinate by the increment value and increment the index by one.
		tvCoordinate -= incrementValue;
		tvCount++;

		// Check if at the top of the texture and if so then start at the bottom again.
		if(tvCount == incrementCount)
		{
			tvCoordinate = 1.0f;
			tvCount = 0;
		}
	}

	return;
}

bool TerrainHandle::LoadTexture(ID3D11Device* device, WCHAR* filename)
{
	bool result;


	// Create the texture object.
	m_Texture = new TextureHandle;
	if(!m_Texture)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Initialize the texture object.
	result = m_Texture->Initialize(device, filename);
	if(!result)
	{
		return false;
	}

	return true;
}

void TerrainHandle::ReleaseTexture()
{
	// Release the texture object.
	if(m_Texture)
	{
		m_Texture->Shutdown();
		delete m_Texture;
		m_Texture = 0;
	}

	return;
}

bool TerrainHandle::InitializeBuffers(ID3D11Device* device)
{
	VertexType* vertices;
	unsigned long* indices;
	int index, i, j;
	D3D11_BUFFER_DESC vertexBufferDesc, indexBufferDesc;
    D3D11_SUBRESOURCE_DATA vertexData, indexData;
	HRESULT result;
	int index1, index2, index3, index4;
	float tu, tv;


	// Calculate the number of vertices in the terrain mesh.
	m_vertexCount = (m_terrainWidth - 1) * (m_terrainHeight - 1) * 6;

	// Set the index count to the same as the vertex count.
	m_indexCount = m_vertexCount;

	// Create the vertex array.
	vertices = new VertexType[m_vertexCount];
	if(!vertices)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Create the index array.
	indices = new unsigned long[m_indexCount];
	if(!indices)
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Initialize the index to the vertex buffer.
	index = 0;

	// Load the vertex and index array with the terrain data.
	for(j=0; j<(m_terrainHeight-1); j++)
	{
		for(i=0; i<(m_terrainWidth-1); i++)
		{
			index1 = (m_terrainHeight * j) + i;          // Bottom left.
			index2 = (m_terrainHeight * j) + (i+1);      // Bottom right.
			index3 = (m_terrainHeight * (j+1)) + i;      // Upper left.
			index4 = (m_terrainHeight * (j+1)) + (i+1);  // Upper right.

			// Upper left.
			tv = m_heightMap[index3].tv;

			// Modify the texture coordinates to cover the top edge.
			if(tv == 1.0f) { tv = 0.0f; }

			vertices[index].position = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index3].x, m_heightMap[index3].y, m_heightMap[index3].z);
			vertices[index].texture = D3DXVECTOR2(m_heightMap[index3].tu, tv);
			vertices[index].normal = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index3].nx, m_heightMap[index3].ny, m_heightMap[index3].nz);
			indices[index] = index;
			index++;

			// Upper right.
			tu = m_heightMap[index4].tu;
			tv = m_heightMap[index4].tv;

			// Modify the texture coordinates to cover the top and right edge.
			if(tu == 0.0f) { tu = 1.0f; }
			if(tv == 1.0f) { tv = 0.0f; }

			vertices[index].position = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index4].x, m_heightMap[index4].y, m_heightMap[index4].z);
			vertices[index].texture = D3DXVECTOR2(tu, tv);
			vertices[index].normal = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index4].nx, m_heightMap[index4].ny, m_heightMap[index4].nz);
			indices[index] = index;
			index++;

			// Bottom left.
			vertices[index].position = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index1].x, m_heightMap[index1].y, m_heightMap[index1].z);
			vertices[index].texture = D3DXVECTOR2(m_heightMap[index1].tu, m_heightMap[index1].tv);
			vertices[index].normal = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index1].nx, m_heightMap[index1].ny, m_heightMap[index1].nz);
			indices[index] = index;
			index++;

			// Bottom left.
			vertices[index].position = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index1].x, m_heightMap[index1].y, m_heightMap[index1].z);
			vertices[index].texture = D3DXVECTOR2(m_heightMap[index1].tu, m_heightMap[index1].tv);
			vertices[index].normal = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index1].nx, m_heightMap[index1].ny, m_heightMap[index1].nz);
			indices[index] = index;
			index++;

			// Upper right.
			tu = m_heightMap[index4].tu;
			tv = m_heightMap[index4].tv;

			// Modify the texture coordinates to cover the top and right edge.
			if(tu == 0.0f) { tu = 1.0f; }
			if(tv == 1.0f) { tv = 0.0f; }

			vertices[index].position = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index4].x, m_heightMap[index4].y, m_heightMap[index4].z);
			vertices[index].texture = D3DXVECTOR2(tu, tv);
			vertices[index].normal = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index4].nx, m_heightMap[index4].ny, m_heightMap[index4].nz);
			indices[index] = index;
			index++;

			// Bottom right.
			tu = m_heightMap[index2].tu;

			// Modify the texture coordinates to cover the right edge.
			if(tu == 0.0f) { tu = 1.0f; }

			vertices[index].position = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index2].x, m_heightMap[index2].y, m_heightMap[index2].z);
			vertices[index].texture = D3DXVECTOR2(tu, m_heightMap[index2].tv);
			vertices[index].normal = D3DXVECTOR3(m_heightMap[index2].nx, m_heightMap[index2].ny, m_heightMap[index2].nz);
			indices[index] = index;
			index++;
		}
	}

	// Set up the description of the static vertex buffer.
    vertexBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DEFAULT;
    vertexBufferDesc.ByteWidth = sizeof(VertexType) * m_vertexCount;
    vertexBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_VERTEX_BUFFER;
    vertexBufferDesc.CPUAccessFlags = 0;
    vertexBufferDesc.MiscFlags = 0;
	vertexBufferDesc.StructureByteStride = 0;

	// Give the subresource structure a pointer to the vertex data.
    vertexData.pSysMem = vertices;
	vertexData.SysMemPitch = 0;
	vertexData.SysMemSlicePitch = 0;

	// Now create the vertex buffer.
    result = device->CreateBuffer(&vertexBufferDesc, &vertexData, &m_vertexBuffer);
	if(FAILED(result))
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Set up the description of the static index buffer.
    indexBufferDesc.Usage = D3D11_USAGE_DEFAULT;
    indexBufferDesc.ByteWidth = sizeof(unsigned long) * m_indexCount;
    indexBufferDesc.BindFlags = D3D11_BIND_INDEX_BUFFER;
    indexBufferDesc.CPUAccessFlags = 0;
    indexBufferDesc.MiscFlags = 0;
	indexBufferDesc.StructureByteStride = 0;

	// Give the subresource structure a pointer to the index data.
    indexData.pSysMem = indices;
	indexData.SysMemPitch = 0;
	indexData.SysMemSlicePitch = 0;

	// Create the index buffer.
	result = device->CreateBuffer(&indexBufferDesc, &indexData, &m_indexBuffer);
	if(FAILED(result))
	{
		return false;
	}

	// Release the arrays now that the buffers have been created and loaded.
	delete [] vertices;
	vertices = 0;

	delete [] indices;
	indices = 0;

	return true;
}

void TerrainHandle::ShutdownBuffers()
{
	// Release the index buffer.
	if(m_indexBuffer)
	{
		m_indexBuffer->Release();
		m_indexBuffer = 0;
	}

	// Release the vertex buffer.
	if(m_vertexBuffer)
	{
		m_vertexBuffer->Release();
		m_vertexBuffer = 0;
	}

	return;
}

void TerrainHandle::RenderBuffers(ID3D11DeviceContext* deviceContext)
{
	unsigned int stride;
	unsigned int offset;


	// Set vertex buffer stride and offset.
	stride = sizeof(VertexType); 
	offset = 0;
    
	// Set the vertex buffer to active in the input assembler so it can be rendered.
	deviceContext->IASetVertexBuffers(0, 1, &m_vertexBuffer, &stride, &offset);

    // Set the index buffer to active in the input assembler so it can be rendered.
	deviceContext->IASetIndexBuffer(m_indexBuffer, DXGI_FORMAT_R32_UINT, 0);

    // Set the type of primitive that should be rendered from this vertex buffer, in this case triangles.
	deviceContext->IASetPrimitiveTopology(D3D11_PRIMITIVE_TOPOLOGY_TRIANGLELIST);

	return;
}


#4 MarkS   Prime Members   -  Reputation: 882

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Posted 03 January 2013 - 02:43 PM

That is really poor error handling in the Initialize function. It tests for two different things, file loading and vertex buffer creation, and returns false from either case upon failure. How do you know if the file failed to load or the vertex buffer failed to be created? More over, how can you tell why the file failed to load or why the vertex buffer failed to be created?
 
You need to know specifics before you can debug. I'm going to guess that the textures are not in the directory with the executable and cannot be found. But that is just a guess.

Edited by MarkS, 03 January 2013 - 03:03 PM.


#5 oldgregg   Members   -  Reputation: 231

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Posted 03 January 2013 - 02:48 PM

Yeah I get it's pretty choppy.

half of the messages were only added so I could find the error.

 

Would you suggest, I also add messages in each of the two tests in order to find out which one it is?

 

You've already helped by pointing that out, I did a huge facepalm >.<

So yeah, Thanks!



#6 MarkS   Prime Members   -  Reputation: 882

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Posted 03 January 2013 - 02:52 PM

A better suggestion is to return a integer value depending on the reason for the failure, i.e., 0 for no error, 1 for allocation error, 2 for file not found, etc.
 
You should also be doing exception handling:
 
try{
	m_Terrain = new TerrainHandle;
}
catch(std::bad_alloc)
{
	MessageBox(hwnd, L"Could not create TerrainHandle object.", L"Error", MB_OK);
	return false;
}

Edited by MarkS, 03 January 2013 - 02:55 PM.


#7 oldgregg   Members   -  Reputation: 231

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Posted 03 January 2013 - 03:08 PM

So I did that, and it wasn't working because I am an absolute moron.

'dirt01.dds'

 

 

Was actually named:

'diirt01.dds'

 

I think I need to go to bed guys.


Thanks so much for your help though, I'll definitely implement the better way or reporting errors.


Thanks!



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Posted 03 January 2013 - 03:16 PM

It happens. unsure.png  At least you learned something.wink.png






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