I don't think that's what it means. The idea behind temporaries is that they can be bound to an r-value reference, and that they can be modified. It'd be kinda useless to have a r-value reference to say a string if I couldn't pilfer the data by swapping the internal pointer (which implies both reading and writing to it). If I could only read and not write the pointer then the data would be delete'd right away, which wouldn't really make sense. There's no where I see it stated that temporaries bound to non-const lvalues cannot be modified while temporaries bound to non-const rvalues can be. Also in your example (2 = 1), neither would bind to a non-const lvalue. Also the standard does clearly state the temporary will live till the end of the expression (at the very least), which would include the function call.
The thing is, you're not supposed to be able to take an l-value reference to an r-value. Yes, there are some ways that an r-value reference may be modified (through calling non-const member functions, or if you're using move semantics), but they're not supposed to be modified through any other means.
But it's possible Visual Studio allows it. I just know that in standard C++, it's illegal.
Far more baffling though is why isn't the VS2012 compiler linking in the proper template function instantiations, and if I've made a mistake in the compiler or linker settings why didn't it tell me instead of just blowing up...
Are you sure that's the error? The error you're describing sounds a whole lot like you're invoking undefined behavior somewhere. Are you linking to two different versions of the standard library? If you're not, then I highly doubt that is your problem, and would expect your problem to be undefined behavior being invoked elsewhere. Seriously though, at least try passing in a variable to throw_detailed() instead of a temporary.
Also, I suggest you post the *full* code, because that's not it. You're not showing what Exception::GetLineNumber() is, for example.
Somewhere you're invoking undefined behavior. I'd be shocked if the template instantiation is the problem (unless you're linking to different versions of the standard library).