OpenGL has never needed to play catch-up to Direct3D.
Almost every feature that was added to Direct3D was available to OpenGL first. Many of the features developed at Microsoft's request for Direct3D and that have Direct3D-style names for their OpenGL extension were co-released for both OpenGL and Direct3D at the same time as the hardware became available. One notable exception to the rule was hardware vertex buffers.
Off the top of my head, missing from the core API while present in D3D; VBO, FBO, efficient frame buffer blitting ability, functional multi-sample render target support, Geo Shaders (and associated functionality), Hull/Domain shaders, Compute shaders, (still missing, last I checked, append/consume buffers), no cross vendor way of dealing with the depth/stencil buffer for ages (DX9 feature), draw indirect (index, instanced and dispatch variants), instancing support (DX9), point sprites where missing and then broken for ages.
I dare say others exist.
While the ARB are getting better, it only took a couple of years post-D3D11's release to sort out the gaps, to claim OpenGL was never missing features is to distort the truth so much it starts to resemble a VW Beatle. Heck, FBOs and associated functionality took YEARS to appear even in extension form as back then the ARB couldn't organise an arse finding competition if they were given a map and complete step by step instructions.
Right now I can only think of two (AMD) OGL extensions I'd like to play with; multi-draw indirect and 'sparse texture' (aka PRT) as they have no D3D version... unfortunately every time I consider writing some code to do so I remember that a) I have to worry about extensions in some manner and b) bind-to-fucking-edit is still OGL's way of doing things which is a pants-on-head retarded API model these days.