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Code Review : Pong Clone


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#1 kaylors   Members   -  Reputation: 128

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Posted 18 July 2013 - 08:03 AM

Pretty self-explanatory, really smile.png

I followed the advice I got here and coded a Pong clone. I had some knowledge of Java and thus decided to go with Processing.

This is the completed game's code. Please guide me on understanding everything that's wrong with it, because I know there must be plenty.

Thank you.

 

Here's a link where you can play the game: http://www.openprocessing.org/sketch/103532

int MODE;


MenuText back;


/* @pjs font="Arial.ttf"; */


PFont titleF;
PFont menuItemF;
String[] menuItemsNames={"START","INSTRUCTIONS","CREDITS"};  //Creates the array that will be passed to the Menu class for forming individual MenuText objects.
Menu menu;


Paddle paddleLeft;
Paddle paddleRight;


Ball pongBall;
Ball pongScreenBall;
Ball pongCreditsBall;


Score tpScore;


Field field;


void setup(){
  size(640,480);
  background(255);
  smooth();
  noStroke();
  
  titleF=createFont("Arial");
  menuItemF=createFont("Arial");
  menu=new Menu("PONG",menuItemsNames,titleF,menuItemF,0,255,color(183,152,50),0,color(50,155,61));
  
  back=new MenuText("BACK",menuItemF,width/2,height/1.5+100,24,color(255),color(183,152,50),color(0),color(50,155,61));
  
  paddleLeft=new Paddle(width/48,height/5,color(183,152,50),0);
  paddleRight=new Paddle(width/48,height/5,color(183,152,50),1);
  
  pongBall=new Ball(10,color(255),5);
  pongScreenBall=new Ball(10,color(255),4);
  pongCreditsBall=new Ball(10,color(255),10);
  
  tpScore=new Score(10,createFont("Arial"),32,0,255,0,40,height-40,width-40,height-40);
  
  field=new Field(color(255),color(50,155,61),color(255));
  
  MODE=0;
}


void draw(){
  background(50,155,61);
  
  
  
  if(MODE==0){
    pongScreenBall.update();
    pongScreenBall.render();
    pongScreenBall.wallCollision();
    
    menu.render();    
    
    switch(menu.whichItem()){
      case 0:
      MODE=1;
      menu.passTo(menu.whichItem());
      break;
      
      case 1:
      MODE=2;
      menu.passTo(menu.whichItem());
      break;
      
      case 2:
      MODE=3;
      menu.passTo(menu.whichItem());
      break;
      
      default:
      break;
    }
  }
  else  if(MODE==1){
    field.render();
    tpScore.render();
    
    paddleLeft.render();
    paddleRight.render();
    paddleLeft.update();
    paddleRight.update();
    
    pongBall.wallCollision(paddleLeft);
    pongBall.paddleCollision(paddleLeft);
    pongBall.paddleCollision(paddleRight);
    
    pongBall.update();
    pongBall.render();
    
    if(pongBall.getSideHit()!=2){
      tpScore.update(pongBall.getSideHit());
      pongBall.setSideHit(2);
      pongBall.reset();
      pongBall.updateV(5);
      if(tpScore.hasMaxed()!=0){
        MODE=4;        
      }
    }
    
  }
  else if(MODE==2){
    background(50,155,61);
    
    textFont(createFont("Arial"));
    textSize(75);
    fill(255);
    text("INSTRUCTIONS",width/2-textWidth("INSTRUCTIONS")/2,height/4);
    
    textFont(menuItemF);
    textSize(20);
    text("Welcome to Pong, a 2 Player, 2 Dimensional Tabble-Tennis Game",width/2-textWidth("Welcome to Pong, a 2 Player, 2 Dimensional Tabble-Tennis Game")/2,height/2-38);
    text("Press W and S to control the Left Paddle",width/2-textWidth("Press W and S to control the Left Paddle")/2,height/2-10);
    text("Press UP and DOWN to control the Right Paddle",width/2-textWidth("Press UP and DOWN to control the Right Paddle")/2,height/2+18);
    text("Winner decided when one player amasses 10 points",width/2-textWidth("Winner decided when one player amasses 10 points")/2,height/2+46);
    
    back.update();
    back.render();
    
    if(back.getClicked()){
      MODE=0;
      back.unClick();
    }
  }
  else if(MODE==4){
    pongScreenBall.update();
    pongScreenBall.render();
    pongScreenBall.wallCollision();
    
    background(50,155,61);
    
    textFont(titleF);
    textSize(95);
    fill(255);
    text("GAME OVER",width/2-textWidth("GAME OVER")/2,height/2-(104/3));
    
    textFont(createFont("Arial"));
    textSize(32);
    text("Player "+str(tpScore.hasMaxed())+" WON!",width/2-textWidth("Player "+str(tpScore.hasMaxed())+" WON!")/2,height/2+25);    
    
    textFont(menuItemF);
    textSize(48);
    text("Thank You For Playing...",width/2-textWidth("Thank You For Playing...")/2,height/2+85);
    
    back.update();
    back.render();
    
    if(back.getClicked()){
      MODE=0;
      back.unClick();
      tpScore.reset();
    }
    
  }
  else if(MODE==3){
    background(50,155,61);
    
    pongCreditsBall.update();
    pongCreditsBall.render();
    pongCreditsBall.wallCollision();
    
    fill(255);
    textFont(createFont("Arial"));
    textSize(32);
    text("coded by",width/2-textWidth("coded by")/2,height/3);
    
    textFont(menuItemF);
    textSize(45);
    text("Le Shaun",width/2-textWidth("Le Shaun")/2,height/2);
    
    back.update();
    back.render();
    
    if(back.getClicked()){
      MODE=0;
      back.unClick();
    }
  }
}


void mouseClicked(){
  if(MODE==0){
    menu.passTo(mouseX,mouseY);
  }
  else if(MODE==3 || MODE==2 || MODE==4){
    back.mClicked(mouseX,mouseY);
  }
}


void keyReleased(){
  if(MODE==1){
    if(key==CODED){
      if(keyCode==UP){
        paddleRight.updateMve(0);
      }
      else if(keyCode==DOWN){
        paddleRight.updateMve(0);
      }
    }
    else{
      if(key=='W' || key=='w'){
        paddleLeft.updateMve(0);
      }
      else if(key=='S' || key=='s'){
        paddleLeft.updateMve(0);
      }
    }
  }
}
    


void keyPressed(){
  if(MODE==1){
    if(key==CODED){
      if(keyCode==UP){
        paddleRight.updateMve(-2);
      }
      else if(keyCode==DOWN){
        paddleRight.updateMve(2);
      }
    }
    else{
      if(key=='W' || key=='w'){
        paddleLeft.updateMve(-2);
      }
      else if(key=='S' || key=='s'){
        paddleLeft.updateMve(2);
      }
    }
    if(key=='p' || key=='P'){
      noLoop();
    }
    if(key=='r' || key=='R'){
      loop();
    }
  }
}


class Ball
{
  float radius;
  float bX;
  float bY;
  
  float vBase;
  float vX;
  float vY;


  color bColor;
  int sideHit;
  
  Ball(float radius,color bColor,float vBase){
    this.radius=radius;
    this.bColor=bColor;
    this.vBase=vBase;
    
    bX=width/2;
    bY=height/2;
    
    float rnd=random(0,3);
    if(rnd<0){vX=-sqrt(sq(vBase)/2); vY=sqrt(sq(vBase)/2);}
    else if(rnd>=0 && rnd<1){vX=-sqrt((vBase*vBase)/2); vY=-sqrt(sq(vBase)/2);}
    else if(rnd>=1 && rnd<2){vX=sqrt(sq(vBase)/2); vY=sqrt(sq(vBase)/2);}
    else{vX=sqrt(sq(vBase)/2); vY=-sqrt(sq(vBase)/2);}
    
    sideHit=2;
  }
  
  void render(){
    stroke(0);
    fill(bColor);
    
    ellipse(bX,bY,radius*2,radius*2);
  }
  
  void update(){
    bX+=vX;
    bY+=vY;
  }
  
  void reset(){
    bX=width/2;
    bY=height/2;
    vX=sqrt(sq(vBase)/2); 
    vY=sqrt(sq(vBase)/2);
  }
  
  void updateV(float V){
    vBase=V;
  }
  
  void accelerate(float V){
    vBase+=V;
  }
  
  int getSideHit(){
    return sideHit;
  }
  
  void setSideHit(int hit){
    sideHit=hit;
  }
  
  void wallCollision(Paddle p){
    if(bX>=(width-radius-p.getWidth()/2)){
      sideHit=1;         
    }
    else if(bX<=radius+p.getWidth()/2){
      sideHit=0;
    }
    
    if(bY>=(height-radius) || bY<=radius){
      vY*=-1;
    }
  }
  
  void wallCollision(){
    if(bX>=(width-radius) || bX<=radius){
      vX*=-1;
    } 
    if(bY>=(height-radius) || bY<=radius){
      vY*=-1;
    }
  }
  
  void paddleCollision(Paddle p){
    if(p.getOrient()==0){
      if(bY>=(p.getY()-p.getHeight()/2) && bY<=(p.getY()+p.getHeight()/2)){
        if((bX-radius)<=p.getWidth()){
          float varier=map(p.getY()-bY,0,p.getHeight()/2,0.1,1);
          
          vY=sqrt(sq(vBase)/2)*varier*-1;
          vX=sqrt(sq(vBase)/2)*sqrt(2-sq(varier))*(-1*(vX/abs(vX)));
          
          accelerate(0.2);
          
          //println(vX+" "+vY+" "+" "+sqrt(sq(vBase)/2)+" "+varier);
        }
      }
    }
    else if(p.getOrient()==1){
      if(bY>=(p.getY()-p.getHeight()/2) && bY<=(p.getY()+p.getHeight()/2)){
        if((bX+radius)>=width-p.getWidth()){
          float varier=map(p.getY()-bY,0,p.getHeight()/2,0.1,1);
          
          vY=sqrt(sq(vBase)/2)*varier*-1;
          vX=sqrt(sq(vBase)/2)*sqrt(2-sq(varier))*(-1*(vX/abs(vX)));
          
          accelerate(0.2);
          
          //println(vX+" "+vY+" "+sqrt(sq(vBase)/2)+" "+varier);
        }
      }
    }
  }
}


class Field
{
  color fEdge;
  color fFloor;
  color fNet;
  
  Field(color fEdge,color fFloor,color fNet){
    this.fEdge=fEdge;
    this.fFloor=fFloor;
    this.fNet=fNet;
  }
  
  void render(){
    rectMode(CENTER);
    
    fill(fFloor);
    noStroke();
    rect(width/2,height/2,width,height);
    
    noFill();
    stroke(fEdge);
    rect(width/2,height/2,width-10,height-10);
    
    stroke(fNet);
    for(int i=9;i<=height-10;i+=(height-10)/100){
      ellipse(width/2,i,1,1);
    }
  }
}
//Menu class uses the objects from the MenuText and forms a menu with a title and a list of MenuText objects.


class Menu{
  String titleT;
  
  PFont titleF;
  PFont menuItem;
  
  color titleC;
  
  float spacer;    //This is used to define the space between successive MenuText objects.
  float iniY=height/2.5;
  
  MenuText[] menuItems;
  
  Menu(String titleT,String[] menuItemsNames,PFont titleF,PFont menuItemF,color titleC,color menuItemC,color menuBackC,color itemHoverC,color backHoverC){
    this.titleT=titleT;
    this.titleF=titleF;
    this.titleC=titleC;
    
    menuItems=new MenuText[menuItemsNames.length];  //Initializes the MenuText objects depending on the array passed to it. This makes the menu system very flexible.
    spacer=48;
    for(int i=0;i<menuItemsNames.length;i++){      
      menuItems[i]=new MenuText(menuItemsNames[i],menuItemF,width/2,iniY+(spacer*i),24,menuItemC,menuBackC,itemHoverC,backHoverC);
    }
  }


  void render(){
    textFont(titleF);
    textSize(92);
    fill(titleC);
    text(titleT,width/2-(textWidth(titleT)/2),height/3.8);
    
    for(int i=0;i<menuItems.length;i++){
      menuItems[i].update();
      menuItems[i].render();
    }
  }
  
  void passTo(float mX,float mY){    //This accepts the X,Y mouse coords when the mouse is clicked and passes it to the relevant MenuText object to check if the click occurs on that object.
    for(int i=0;i<menuItems.length;i++){
      menuItems[i].mClicked(mX,mY);
    }
  }
  
  void passTo(int item){
    menuItems[item].unClick();
  }
  
  int whichItem(){  //Checks each time if the clicked state of any MenuText object is true. If it is, returns the array position of the relevant object.
    for(int i=0;i<menuItems.length;i++){
      if(menuItems[i].getClicked()){
        return i;
      }
    }
    return menuItems.length;
  }
}
//MenuText holds the attributes and methods relating to each single item on the menu. Thus each item is treated as a separate object.
//Each MenuText object comprises mainly of a foreground text and a background object. 


class MenuText{
  
  String menuItem;
  PFont menuFont;
  float itemX;
  float itemY;
  float itemSize;
  color itemColor;
  color backColor;
  color pressedColor;
  color pressedBack;
  
  color presentItem;
  color presentBack;
  
  float tWidth;
  
  boolean clicked=false;  //This vairable is used to check the clicked state of the menu item. If the mouse is clicked over the menu item, this variable becomes true.
  
  MenuText(String menuItem,PFont menuFont,float itemX,float itemY,float itemSize,color itemColor,color backColor,color pressedColor,color pressedBack){
    this.menuItem=menuItem;
    this.menuFont=menuFont;
    this.itemX=itemX;
    this.itemY=itemY;
    this.itemSize=itemSize;
    this.itemColor=itemColor;
    this.backColor=backColor;
    this.pressedColor=pressedColor;
    this.pressedBack=pressedBack;
  }
  
  void render(){
    textFont(menuFont);
    textSize(itemSize);
    tWidth=textWidth(menuItem);
    
    stroke(0);
    fill(presentBack);
    rectMode(CENTER);
    rect(itemX,itemY,tWidth*1.3,itemSize*1.4,50);
    
    fill(presentItem);
    text(menuItem,itemX-tWidth/2,itemY+itemSize*.3);
  }
  
  void update(){             //Constatnly checks for the state of the object. If the mouse is over it a certain style is show and otherwise another style is shown.
    if(mouseX<(itemX+(tWidth*1.3)/2) && mouseX>(itemX-(tWidth*1.3)/2) && mouseY<(itemY+(itemSize*1.4)/2) && mouseY>(itemY-(itemSize*1.4)/2)){
     presentItem=pressedColor;
     presentBack=pressedBack;
    }
    else{
     presentItem=itemColor;
     presentBack=backColor;
    }
  }
  
  boolean getClicked(){    //Returns the clicked state of the object.
    return clicked;
  }
  
  void unClick(){
    clicked=false;
  }
  
  void mClicked(float mX,float mY){  //Changes the clicked state of the object depending on the position of the mouse as inputs.
    if(mX<(itemX+(tWidth*1.3)/2) && mX>(itemX-(tWidth*1.3)/2) && mY<(itemY+(itemSize*1.4)/2) && mY>(itemY-(itemSize*1.4)/2)){
      clicked=true;
      //println(menuItem);
    }
  }
}
class Paddle {


  float pWidth;
  float pHeight;
  color pColor;


  float pX;
  float pY;
  float pV;
  int mve;
  
  int pOrient;


  Paddle(float pWidth, float pHeight, color pColor, int pOrient){
    this.pWidth=pWidth;
    this.pHeight=pHeight;
    this.pColor=pColor;
    this.pOrient=pOrient;
    
    if (pOrient==0) {
      this.pX=(pWidth/2);
    }
    else {
      this.pX=width-(pWidth/2);
    }
    
    this.pY=height/2;
    this.pV=7;
    this.mve=0;
  }
  
  //Le Getters
  int getOrient(){
    return pOrient;
  }
  
  float getX(){
    return pX;
  }
  
  float getY(){
    return pY;
  }
  
  float getDiag(){
    return (float)(sqrt(pWidth*pWidth-pHeight*pHeight));
  }
  
  float getWidth(){
    return pWidth;
  }
  
  float getHeight(){
    return pHeight;
  }
  
  //Le Rendered & Updater
  void render() {
    rectMode(CENTER);
    fill(pColor);
    stroke(0);


    rect(pX, pY, pWidth, pHeight,pHeight/10);
  }
  
  void updateMve(int mve){
    this.mve=mve;
  }
  
  void update(){
    this.pY=constrain(this.pY+pV*mve, pHeight/2+10, height-(pHeight/2)-10);
  }
  
}
class Score{
  int p1;
  int p2;
  int maxScore;
  
  PFont pFont;
  int pSize;
  color pText;
  color pBack;
  color pStroke;
  
  float p1X;
  float p1Y;
  
  float p2X;
  float p2Y;
   
  Score(int maxScore,PFont pFont,int pSize,color pText,color pBack,color pStroke,float p1X,float p1Y,float p2X,float p2Y){
    p1=0;
    p2=0;
    this.maxScore=maxScore;
    this.pSize=pSize;
    
    this.pFont=pFont;
    this.pText=pText;
    this.pBack=pBack;
    this.pStroke=pStroke;
    
    this.p1X=p1X;
    this.p2X=p2X;
    
    this.p1Y=p1Y;
    this.p2Y=p2Y;
  }
  
  void render(){
    textFont(pFont);
    textSize(pSize);
    
    fill(pBack);
    stroke(pStroke);
    
    rectMode(CENTER);
    
    rect(p1X,p1Y,textWidth(str(p1))*1.3,pSize);
    rect(p2X,p2Y,textWidth(str(p2))*1.3,pSize);
    
    fill(pText);
    text(str(p1),p1X-(textWidth(str(p1))/2),p1Y+pSize*0.3);
    text(str(p2),p2X-(textWidth(str(p2))/2),p2Y+pSize*0.3);
  }
  
  void update(int p){
    if(p==0){
      p2+=1;
    }
    else if(p==1){
      p1+=1;
    }
  }
  
  void reset(){
    p1=0;
    p2=0;
  }
  
  int hasMaxed(){
    if(p1>=maxScore){
      return 1;
    }
    else if(p2>=maxScore){
      return 2;
    }
    else{
      return 0;
    }
  }}


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#2 HappyCoder   Members   -  Reputation: 2664

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Posted 18 July 2013 - 11:42 AM

First of all, great job finishing a game. It is a simple game, but it looks solid and you even added a menu to it.
 
I think you did a pretty good job separating your code into different classes. 
 
Here are a few things you may want to consider with your next game.
 
You have some magic numbers. Meaning you have constant numbers in your code with no meaning associated with them. Instead of repeating the same number over and over in the code just make a named constant and use that instead. This makes your code much more readable and makes it much easier to change these values later.

You are updating the logic and drawing objects in the same functions. I recommend splitting those up into different functions.

You seem to draw centered text a lot where you calculate the width of the same string as you drawing leaving many lines of code with duplicated strings. If you created a centerText function you could reduce the redundant strings and remove the chance you update one string without updating the other.

You have lots of places in your code where you check the mode before deciding what code to execute. Look into polymorphism if you haven't already. What that lets you do is define a base class that only specifies the names and parameters of the methods, then you create classes that extend the base case. These subclasses implement the methods but in different ways to have different functionality. For example.

class Scene {
   void render() {

   }

   void update(float timestep, InputState inputState) {

   }
}

class MainMenu extends Scene {
   void render() {
      centerText("Play", screenWidth * 0.5, screenHeight * 0.5);
      // additional drawing code
   }

   void update(float timeStep, InputState inputState) {
      // check the input state to look for button clicks
   }
}

class PongGame extends Scene {
   Ball ball;
   Paddle playerOne;
   Paddle playerTwo;
   // other objects go here

   void render() {
      // draw the background
      ball.render();
      playerOne.render();
      playerTwo.render();
      // draw everything else
   }

   void update(float timeStep, InputState inputState) {
      ball.update(timeStep, inputState)
      playerOne.update(timeStep, inputState);
      playerTwo.update(timeStep, inputState);
      // update anything else
   }
}

Then to use the scene you do something like this

Scene activeScene = new MainMenu();
InputState inputState;

void draw() {
   activeScene.update(timeBetweenFrames, inputState);
   activeScene.render();
}

void mouseClicked(){
  // save mouse information in the input state
}

void keyReleased(){
  //save key to up in the input state
}

void keyPressed(){
  // save key to down in the input state
}

I also added a timestep to your code. That is just the time between frames in seconds between each frame. It is generally a good idea to update the game based on how much time has passed, that way if the framerate begins to drop the gameplay doesn't slow down. And with regards to using an activeScene, this gives you a lot of flexibility over what is shown on the screen. When the player clicks the play button you simply assign activeScene to be a new PongGame and the pong game will start.

An important thing to note about the above code is I don't know if the above code is the right way to extend a class in OpenProcessing. You will have to look up how to implement polymorphism in whatever language you are working in.

Anyway. That is a my feedback. Keep up the good work.


Edited by HappyCoder, 18 July 2013 - 11:43 AM.


#3 kaylors   Members   -  Reputation: 128

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Posted 18 July 2013 - 12:39 PM

Thank you for your reply! ^.^

This actually gives me a lot to think about. I'm a very new coder and I'm still just learning and not only have you taught me something new, you might just have helped me understand some things that I hadn't even thought of trying to understand. Implementing the scenes in that way actually helps me in another way which I will reveal later if I can work it out, lol. I'm so gonna refactor this thing.

 

Thank you, once again!






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