On Linux (and BSD) I tend to develop 3D (and 2D) games with the following configs
C++, freeglut, glew, gl, glm, png (for sound, openal, freealut, ogg, vorbis)
C++, SDL, glew, gl, glm, SDL_image (for sound SDL_mixer)
If you would prefer a more complete solution, there are some pretty decent engines / renderers compatible with Linux too such as Irrlicht, Ogre, Horde, Panda3D (very good with python).
If you want to go the .NET route, there is OpenTK (OpenGL related tech wrapper) and MonoGame (XNA compatible API) (which is completely broken on FreeBSD and some of the more "stable" distros such as RedHat Enterprise 6).
Also, an interesting thing to do is run ldd on your favorite Linux / UNIX game and see what they technologies they use. i.e
$ ldd /usr/local/bin/quake3
$ ldd /usr/local/bin/nwn
Edited by Karsten_, 13 September 2013 - 08:12 AM.