Sometimes I forget to include it in new files, which means that things that were supposed to be conditionally compiled get compiled when they shouldn't and vice-versa, and that creates all kinds of problems
While the answers you have received were quite correct, I think you'll find with more experience that the correct solution is to simply make it so you can't even use features you don't have the right header for.
A further simple approach though would be to use explicit numeric values to enable/disable features and then enable warnings for undefined macro usage (-Wundef in GCC-like compilers and /w14668 in VC++), and then use value tests instead of ifdef or if defined():
#define FEATURE 1
#define DISABLED_FEATURE 0
stuff that is disabled
The advantage here is that the compiler will (with those compiler flags) emit a diagnostic that FEATURE and OTHER_FEATURE are undefined if you try to test them without including config.h first.
A better technique is to abstract one level further. Use higher-level macros like THING_THAT_USES_FEATURE(stuff) which is defined in some header that itself includes config.h. An easy example is an assert library:
#define ENABLE_ASSERTS 1
#define ASSERT(...) assert_stuff_here
As you can see in that example, there is no opportunity to remember or not config.h in order to use the assert library. If you include the header necessary to use the asserts at all, you're implicitly pulling in config.h, too.
The gist is that you don't use config headers. Make the config something that is passed to the compiler in your build system. This is trivial in every build system I've ever seen. Now there's no additional burden on the programmer after configuring the build. Every third-party library I've used that uses config headers for these kinds of things (a UNIX norm, sadly) is a pain in the ass to integrate into more complicated needs (like the many separate build configurations common in game development).
About the only thing I use forced includes for are precompiled headers (otherwise people tend to write all kinds of C++ code that accidentally requires that the precompiled header includes something they need which is unfortunate since the PCH is a build optimization and neither it nor its contents should be a hard dependency of any code).