For 20 years C++ was the recommended standard language, especially in the gaming industry. Mostly because it is fast and powerful, inheriting most programming language standards you can possibly think of.
Game and engine development have diverged for a while and the breach is only getting larger over time. Neither AAA nor indie studios build their own engines anymore, that job is now left to middleware developers. All that performance you're talking about needs to be done on the engine side of things, while game developers now instead focus on the higher level stuff - and that can be done with languages that aren't as close to the metal as C++.
It also says something about how complex the game industry has gotten now.
I'd say that most AAA companies build their own engine -- licensed engines are quite rare in AAA from what I can see.
e.g. off the top of my head, almost every AAA company that I can think of has their own internal engine(s): EA, Activision Blizzard, Ubisoft, 2K, Rockstar, Konami, Square Enix, 343, CCP, Naughty Dog, Guerrilla, Insomniac, ArenaNet, Ready At Dawn, Bethesda, CD Projekt, Valve, Codemasters, Riot, Nintendo, Wargaming... In my personal experience, 50% of my games jobs have used licenced engines, and 50% have used their own proprietary tech.
But yes, these engines are typically developed in C++ while the game itself may or may not be. All (4) of the PS4/Xbone games that I've worked on have actually used Lua for the vast majority of the gameplay codebase, and use C# for the vast majority of the tools codebase (and yep, C++ for the majority of the engine codebase)!
In the tools codebase, long term maintainability beats absolute performance, so C# is a great choice.
In the gameplay codebase, daily programmer productivity and agility to change beats absolute performance, so Lua is a great choice.
In the engine codebase, performance is king and we do a lot of data-oriented work, reinterpreting blobs of bits and streaming tightly packed bits of memory between parallel systems, so C++ is a great choice.
C has been a large standard for game development for long time, especialy in times of large impacting games and games "golden era". Wheather it was John Carmack's work, even Doom 3 , Shiny Entertainment's games, Half Life's Source engine as derived from Quake engine, etc. - simply the majority of AAA back then, as well as engines that were not designed and ment to be licensed (Unreal was c++ for that matter).
C++ can introduce performance negative impacts against C, since the inheritance was a subject of heavy missusing very often, making possibly all objects unable to interleave in immediate accessible arrays and so forth.
So if you present C++ as great solely becouse it has been the industry standard for develping video games, you have to review your data.
Doom 3 and Half-Life were mostly C++ with a tiny bit of C
The late 90's was when C++ got standardized and aggressively moved into C's turf a lot more.
The argument that C++ is slower because people might use it badly is... not even valid. You can't compare good code in language A with bad code in language B That's the kind of hyperbole that only Linus 'Arrogance' Torvalds can get away with.