It doesn't have as good of intellisense as Visual Studio (but its as good as CLion's) -- The debugger is pretty slick, too. VS Code itself supports Windows, Linux, and Mac -- the C++ extension supports GCC on all of those platforms, but Windows is (surprisingly) the least mature (but then you have VS Community for free on Windows). Last I looked, CMake was a work in progress, but should be coming along quickly.
Agreed with previous posters that Eclipse is quite heavy, though closest in feel to Visual Studio.
I like the Emacs+cmake+GDB+terminal route myself (using Evil Mode (Vim emulation) because Vim's keyboard commands are better). Vim is fine and works, and is the better human interface (IMO), but Emacs is better software. NeoVim is also better if Emacs doesn't float your boat.