Most of my engine's core functionality (e.g. communicating position of an object from physics to graphics, animation bindings, sound DSP processing) is abstracted as data flows between arbitrary object pairs. In the editor, objects declare their input and output connectors and the user can drag to create connections between them. An "entity" is just a collection of objects with their connections (also encoded as small objects). Each data flow connection can be set to update either before or after a specific engine subsystem, and the engine batches the updates in the correct ordering based on the connectivity between objects. Each batch, if large enough, can then be broken down into disconnected "islands" that can be executed in parallel on a thread pool.
A hard bit in implementing something like this in a large system is that the number of possible type interactions is O(N^2). To avoid that you must decouple the two endpoints of a connection, such as by writing the data to an intermediate temporary storage before reading it on the other endpoint. A connection consists of two Connector subclasses with read() and write() methods, plus a Connection subclass that contains the temporary storage. Then, the number of required connector types is just O(N). My system has over 50 node types so this a big win in code size.