Cocos2d-x is what you need: C++, Mobile/Desktop support, using VS.
Download the lastest version (3.4)
Run the cpp-app-test, from solution.
Be amazed with cocos2d-x. Lots of nice features. Can easily convince you
Drawbacks: Getting update regurlarly, documentation is not so good, but:
Start from here for basic overview of Cocos2d-x (More chapters will be added later):
From cpp-ap-test, there are many situations, covering a lot of things you will need.