You mean if I concatenate the projection, view, and model matrix on the CPU side once before sending it to the shader?

It shouldn't make a difference (in terms of outcome) though it would probably be faster since you'd only be doing one matrix multiplication per shader invocation instead of three. But it might work around the bug.

All my other (4 or so) shaders are working with the first method without the bug while the other 3 must be written without brackets as said.

Are they written exactly the same? How are the matrix variables (projection, model, etc..) defined?

I've noted strange bugs in GLSL compilers before (including ambiguous and sometimes plain contradictory behaviour between two or more compilers) but, well, matrix multiplication is supposed to be associative. So either there's something in how the matrices are defined that is wrong but used to work by accident before, or (more likely) it's a compiler bug...

yes, first formula is more effective since you transform vector 3 times by a matrix, while second formula performs 2 matrix multiplications and than transforms a vector. I stress again that second formula performs reverse order of transformations, and it results in the same thing since matricies are (diagnosticly) transposed.

Matrix multiplication is associative. For any three matrices A, B, C, of any dimension (where multiplication is defined), A * (B * C) = (A * B) * C. There should be no difference in the result. The order of transformations is the same, this is not about commutativity.