Using this version, no geometry is visible at all (only the clear color). So it seems that the order of passing the data and setting up the VAO does matter.
Did you get any further with this Kloffy? I am hitting the exact same issue, on an nvidia card, developing for PC, and I am not sure how best to solve it. I would be interested to hear if you found any nice solutions, as I agree, rebuilding the VAO state each frame is nasty and surely there must be another way?