Serapth: I didn't use the bundled ones, I compiled my own for vs2011 and for vs2008 I used the ones from the sfml site, and compiled my own, to no avail.
Dragonsoulj: I just pasted the code I had been toying with trying to get it to work. I'm pretty sure I've tried every possible permutation of that line, and none of them worked.
On the up side, while trying out SFML-2.0, I was reading this and it says you can add
to the preprocessor, and change the dependencies to use the -s version of the .libs. That worked. Both with 2.0 and 1.6, in vs2008. I guess that just means it's some kind of DLL issue still? I extracted them straight from SFML-1.6.zip to the Debug directory with the exe, and it still won't display a window. If i set the SFML_STATIC; for the Release config, Release will compile and run fine, debug will not. Thoughts?
Basically, anything related to the fixed-pipeline, is depreciated. OpenGL and DirectX both use shaders now, but OpenGL maintains backwards compatiblity by using immediate mode, which you don't want The modern 3D programming tutorial I linked uses shaders.
Based on your description, it sounds like you want to make an engine, and that's totally fine. Building an engine is something I'm really interested in as well. I've been doing a lot of "game development" research in the last few months, and it seems to me that most people don't have a clear idea if they want to make a game or an engine. Most of the advice is don't reinvent the wheel; if your goal is a game, then you shouldn't. But if your goal is to play with proceduaral terrain generation, and maybe make a game out of it, then do whatever you feel like
I would definitely check out Unity, UDK, Ogre3D and recently CryTek3 (I'm leaving off several, just wikipedia game engine), if for nothing other than to play with them and see what a real modern engine can do. They are all complete engines with an IDE that use various scripting languages. They handle everything from input to importing 3D models and assests to sound, etc. I've never played with them much, they may already have a built in means for doing prodcedural terrain generation. Best of luck! It's going to be a long road but I'm on it too, lol.
All of the things you listed are pretty standard. They aren't really frameworks, they're just very thin libraries. OpenGL itself exclusively handles graphics rendering. It doesn't have any way of doing audio, mouse/keyboard input, etc. DirectX has all of those things (DirectSound, DirectInput,etc) so for windows you can simply use DirectX if you want. OpenGL however, actually requires additional libraries. Basically everything you need to know can be found here or here.
SDL, SFML and freeGLUT are popular; GLFW is a freeGLUT alternative that also looks good. Only SDL and SFML handle sound, but they all do windowing and input. Qt and GTK+ are for gui building. Vlc for example uses Qt for it's interface.
You only need one of those, basically just pick one and use it until you have a reason not to. That being said, if you want to make a game more than you want to learn how to program a graphics/physics engine, you probably want to use an already built one, which will vary depending on what kind of game you want to make. Unity, UDK, LOVE, Ogre3D are all engines that do all sorts of different things. That is, as you said, a whole other can of worms. So what do you want to do? Write an engine or make a game?