I'm in the camp that yes, (consumer) GPUs are not as reliable as CPUs. They take a lot of shortcuts and optimizations that generate nearly-correct results. That said, a blue screen failure due to a specific operation is definitely out of the ordinary, though using Vulkan in these early days definitely exposes you to it more than it otherwise would. This actually does sound like you should build a test case and submit it to AMD, as a lot of these weird corner cases can show up dependent on the GPU and they may not have noticed.
As far as handling errors - it is common to have workarounds for certain hardware configurations that are known to break. It is also common to have workarounds for particular drivers, particular operating systems, etc. These are all derived from testing before release (or afterwards...) to find out what works and what doesn't. What you don't have, though, is the ability to detect and handle GPU or driver errors in any sensible way. A blue screen is a kernel mode unhandled exception, and there is not a damn thing you can do about it after the bug has been invoked.