KDevelop, like every other IDE, only requires its dependencies on your development machine. It does not force you to add any dependencies for deployment.
Still, KDE won't be on my arcade machine. It won't even have a desktop environment since I'll be cramped for processing power. Not sure if that'll be a problem as I'll be running a GLUT window from a command line program.
The LGPL licensed Qt option sounds like what you'd want.
I haven't figured out the licensing, or what kind of royalties I'd have to pay Nokia if it came down to me producing a commercial produce.