Upload them only once just before rendering - though the driver will probably already do this for you behind the scenes.
The more important point you might want to consider is how you measure your performance. If you get >1000fps with those various effects, your scene is probably too small to test on. If your rendering is not the bottleneck, then your memory lanes are. So you could probably throw a way more complex scene at the program and it'd run at the same speed. Another point is that measuring with fps can be deluding - a drop from 1200fps to 170fps is not that massive, the render times went from 1ms to 6ms - you should maybe measure which parts take how much time, opengl has time query objects for this.