Vector graphics in many cases sure spares a lot of tedious work. There are ways to make vector art look pixelated. It takes practice but it is doable.
Pixel art and vector graphics have some similarities and some vast differences in coding implementations. To keep coding manageable, you need to use some already existing libraries for the handling of image files.
Vector art solves almost all problems of hardware or operating system differences of end-users, for example screen resolution, screen dimension ratio or screen size differences. With pixel art there can be potentially a wide spectrum of appearance quality among different target platforms, often also in the same genre of hardware platform such as among Windows OS users. Vector art therefore can prevent much of the debugging when it comes to screen issues among the hardware variations.
Vector art can also simplify the lower level coding to make art coding within reach of a competent coder. You can more easily see results as What You See Is What You Get, more dependably. Coding itself will follow a narrower scope of coding conventions than with most other forms of screen rendering. Here is where OpenGL and Java work great together, but it is under general principles similar with Direct3D and any other language. For practice with vector graphics, then start by making UIs and GUIs in vector, if you haven't by now.
Choice of game engine will eliminate much or all of the lower-level coding for you, if you want. "Why try to reinvent the wheel?," as we read around here once in a while. Even without a game engine, you still need to use some libraries.
Always read and follow the license agreements for coding libraries.
If things go well, you can use both vector graphics and pixel art. There are various editors out there which deal in levels, objects, and characters. Some handle vector, voxel, pixel, and procedural generated surfaces and characters, but these always are a bit expensive. There are open source editors which you may use in your workflow pipeline for game engine source code and/or game source code creation.
You'll have to do the leg work, but here is a list of game engines. Go to the sites and see what they have to inspire you, including their showcase threads.
List of game engines: