Have you looked at Learning Modern 3d Graphics Programming?
I learnt with this one. And at the time I didn't even had half the experience the OP has (instead of 3 years with C++ I think I had more like 3 months with it ).
It starts head on with the more modern OpenGL 3.3 (core profile) programmable pipeline, so no fixed-function cruft, and has all the matrix/vector/rasterization theory you need to get going. It has a series of small programs organized on a big workspace so you can follow them and tear them apart on your IDE of choice.