I can't think of any existing examples, but I can think of a few ways to do this.
Something that immediately came to my mind was how in The Last Story, you see all your opponents before you begin fighting, giving you time to plan out your attack. However, it doesn't quite fit the criteria as it's an action game, not turn-based. But a similar design could be implemented into turn-based combat. I think the main key to get rid of unit placing is to focus the action, to strategize the actions of a party instead of troops.
You could take the standard format of turn-based RPG and do away with the aspect of grinding so that the player must adapt their strategy instead of leveling up to a point where they can just bash their opponents into submission. Instead of each character and enemy getting their own turn, they could each act as groups, allowing you to control the order in which your players attack.
Final Fantasy X let you see how your moves would affect who's turn it is in battle. Something like that in a game more designed around strategy would be pretty sweet.
Perhaps it would be useful to more clearly define strategy, given you're using it in a broader sense than usual, as I think combat -- even if in an abstract form like Chess or Checkers -- is probably the most natural way of expressing it.
That's still moving units across a map to kill other units.