Wow, I really didn't expect this thread to get so many replies! My apologies for not responding earlier, this week has been really busy.
@NightCreature83, very useful link! I'm excited to go through the archives.
@_greyfox() & Khatharr, I have learned a very small amount of Assembly, but only for a class. Although knowing relatively little about it, I do feel like I have a better handle of what's going on when I'm debugging. I thrive off of self-learning, and the book you recommended looks ideal for my situation. I'll be buying that one along with Stroustrups' book.
@Álvaro, well, until reading this thread, my honest answer would be one of "shallow knowledge" . I've always found that designs involving generally uncommon tools (like 'volatile' in C++), are best avoided unless really needed; however, I do appreciate the question and the knowledge that comes with its answer. It's exactly what I'm looking for!