Jump to content

  • Log In with Google      Sign In   
  • Create Account

We're offering banner ads on our site from just $5!

1. Details HERE. 2. GDNet+ Subscriptions HERE. 3. Ad upload HERE.


ysg

Member Since 01 Mar 2013
Offline Last Active Sep 17 2013 01:09 PM

Topics I've Started

"undefined reference to"

17 September 2013 - 07:30 AM

Hi, I'm running this in Ubuntu 13.04. This is my compiler version:
$ g++ --version
g++ (Ubuntu/Linaro 4.7.3-1ubuntu1) 4.7.3
Copyright (C) 2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
This is the error that I'm getting (and I'm not sure why):
$ g++ main.cpp main.h shape.cpp shape.h tetris.cpp tetris.h board.cpp board.h `wx-config --libs` `wx-config --cxxflags` -o main
/tmp/ccXvWFjZ.o: In function `Shape::RotateLeft() const':
shape.cpp:(.text+0x29d): undefined reference to `Shape::y(int) const'
shape.cpp:(.text+0x2b3): undefined reference to `Shape::SetX(int, int)'
shape.cpp:(.text+0x2c5): undefined reference to `Shape::x(int) const'
shape.cpp:(.text+0x2dd): undefined reference to `Shape::SetY(int, int)'
/tmp/ccXvWFjZ.o: In function `Shape::RotateRight() const':
shape.cpp:(.text+0x3b3): undefined reference to `Shape::y(int) const'
shape.cpp:(.text+0x3cb): undefined reference to `Shape::SetX(int, int)'
shape.cpp:(.text+0x3dd): undefined reference to `Shape::x(int) const'
shape.cpp:(.text+0x3f3): undefined reference to `Shape::SetY(int, int)'
/tmp/ccXSXGaN.o: In function `Board::OnPaint(wxPaintEvent&)':
board.cpp:(.text+0x62f): undefined reference to `Shape::GetShape() const'
board.cpp:(.text+0x66f): undefined reference to `Shape::x(int) const'
board.cpp:(.text+0x69b): undefined reference to `Shape::y(int) const'
board.cpp:(.text+0x6b3): undefined reference to `Shape::GetShape() const'
/tmp/ccXSXGaN.o: In function `Board::OnKeyDown(wxKeyEvent&)':
board.cpp:(.text+0x780): undefined reference to `Shape::GetShape() const'
/tmp/ccXSXGaN.o: In function `Board::PieceDropped()':
board.cpp:(.text+0xaee): undefined reference to `Shape::x(int) const'
board.cpp:(.text+0xb14): undefined reference to `Shape::y(int) const'
board.cpp:(.text+0xb48): undefined reference to `Shape::GetShape() const'
/tmp/ccXSXGaN.o: In function `Board::TryMove(Shape const&, int, int)':
board.cpp:(.text+0xeac): undefined reference to `Shape::x(int) const'
board.cpp:(.text+0xec8): undefined reference to `Shape::y(int) const'
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
This is the code listed: shape.h:
#ifndef __SHAPE_H__
#define __SHAPE_H__

#include 
#include 

using namespace std;

enum Tetrominoes { NoShape, ZShape, SShape, LineShape, TShape, SquareShape,
  LShape, MirroredLShape };

class Shape
{
public:
  Shape();

  void SetShape(Tetrominoes shape);
  void SetRandomShape();
  Tetrominoes GetShape() const;
  int x(int index) const;
  int y(int index) const;
  int MinX() const;
  int MinY() const;
  int MaxX() const;
  int MaxY() const;
  Shape RotateLeft() const;
  Shape RotateRight() const;

private:
  void SetX(int index, int x);
  void SetY(int index, int y);

  Tetrominoes pieceShape;

  int coords[4][2];
};

#endif
shape.cpp:
#include "shape.h"

Shape::Shape()
{
  this -> SetShape(NoShape);
}

void Shape::SetShape(Tetrominoes shape)
{
  static const int coordsTable[8][4][2] =
  {
    { {0, 0},   {0, 0},  {0, 0},  {0, 0} },
    { {0, -1},  {0, 0},  {-1, 0}, {-1, 1} },
    { {0, -1},  {0, 0},  {1, 0},  {1, 1} },
    { {0, -1},  {0, 0},  {0, 1},  {0, 2} },
    { {-1, 0},  {0, 0},  {1, 0},  {0, 1} },
    { {0, 0},   {1, 0},  {0, 1},  {1, 1} },
    { {-1, -1}, {0, -1}, {0, 0},  {0, 1} },
    { {1, -1},  {0, -1}, {0, 0},  {0, 1} }
  };

  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    for (int j = 0; j < 2; j++)
    {
      coords[i][j] = coordsTable[shape][i][j];
    }
  }

  pieceShape = shape;
}

void Shape::SetRandomShape()
{
  int x = rand() % 7 + 1;
  SetShape(Tetrominoes(x));
}

int Shape::MinX() const
{
  int m = coords[0][0];

  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    m = min(m, coords[i][0]);
  }

  return m;
}

int Shape::MaxX() const
{
  int m = coords[0][0];

  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    m = max(m, coords[i][0]);
  }

  return m;
}

int Shape::MinY() const
{
  int m = coords[0][1];

  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    m = min(m, coords[i][1]);
  }

  return m;
}

int Shape::MaxY() const
{
  int m = coords[0][1];

  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    m = max(m, coords[i][1]);
  }

  return m;
}

Shape Shape::RotateLeft() const
{
  if (SquareShape == pieceShape)
  {
    return ( * this);
  }

  Shape result;
  result.pieceShape = pieceShape;

  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    result.SetX(i, y(i));
    result.SetY(i, -x(i));
  }

  return result;
}

Shape Shape::RotateRight() const
{
  if (SquareShape == pieceShape)
  {
    return ( * this);
  }

  Shape result;
  result.pieceShape = pieceShape;

  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    result.SetX(i, -y(i));
    result.SetY(i, x(i));
  }

  return result;
}
board.h:
#ifndef __BOARD_H__
#define __BOARD_H__

#include "shape.h"

#include 

class Board : public wxPanel
{
public:
  Board(wxFrame * parent);

  void Start();
  void Pause();
  void linesRemovedChanged(int numLines);

protected:
  void OnPaint(wxPaintEvent & event);
  void OnKeyDown(wxKeyEvent & event);
  void OnTimer(wxCommandEvent & event);

private:
  enum { BoardWidth = 10, BoardHeight = 22 };

  Tetrominoes & ShapeAt(int x, int y);

  int SquareWidth();
  int SquareHeight();
  void ClearBoard();
  void DropDown();
  void OneLineDown();
  void PieceDropped();
  void RemoveFullLines();
  void NewPiece();
  bool TryMove(const Shape & newPiece, int newX, int newY);
  void DrawSquare(wxPaintDC & dc, int x, int y, Tetrominoes shape);

  wxTimer * timer;

  bool isStarted;
  bool isPaused;
  bool isFallingFinished;

  Shape curPiece;

  int curX;
  int curY;
  int numLinesRemoved;

  Tetrominoes board[BoardWidth * BoardHeight];

  wxStatusBar * m_stsbar;
};

#endif
board.cpp:
#include "board.h"

Board::Board(wxFrame * parent)
  : wxPanel(parent, wxID_ANY, wxDefaultPosition, wxDefaultSize, wxBORDER_NONE)
{
  timer = new wxTimer(this, 1);

  m_stsbar = parent -> GetStatusBar();

  isFallingFinished = false;
  isStarted = false;
  isPaused = false;

  numLinesRemoved = 0;
  curX = 0;
  curY = 0;

  ClearBoard();

  Connect(wxEVT_PAINT, wxPaintEventHandler(Board::OnPaint));
  Connect(wxEVT_KEY_DOWN, wxKeyEventHandler(Board::OnKeyDown));
  Connect(wxEVT_TIMER, wxCommandEventHandler(Board::OnTimer));
}

int Board::SquareWidth()
{
  return GetClientSize().GetWidth() / BoardWidth;
}

int Board::SquareHeight()
{
  return GetClientSize().GetHeight() / BoardHeight;
}

Tetrominoes & Board::ShapeAt(int x, int y)
{
  return board[(y * BoardWidth) + x];
}

void Board::Start()
{
  if (isPaused)
  {
    return;
  }

  isStarted = true;
  isFallingFinished = false;
  numLinesRemoved = 0;
  ClearBoard();

  NewPiece();
  timer -> Start(300, wxTIMER_CONTINUOUS);
}

void Board::Pause()
{
  if (!isPaused)
  {
    return;
  }

  isPaused = !isPaused;

  if (isPaused)
  {
    timer -> Stop();
    m_stsbar -> SetStatusText(wxT("paused"));
  }
  else
  {
    timer -> Start(300, wxTIMER_CONTINUOUS);
    wxString str;
    str.Printf(wxT("%d"), numLinesRemoved);
    m_stsbar -> SetStatusText(str);
  }

  Refresh();
}

void Board::OnPaint(wxPaintEvent & event)
{
  wxPaintDC dc(this);

  wxSize size = GetClientSize();
  int boardTop = size.GetHeight() - BoardHeight * SquareHeight();

  for (int i = 0; i < BoardHeight; ++i)
  {
    for (int j = 0; j < BoardWidth; ++j)
    {
      Tetrominoes shape = ShapeAt(j, BoardHeight - i - 1);

      if (shape != NoShape)
      {
        DrawSquare(dc, 0 + j * SquareWidth(), boardTop + i * SquareHeight(),
          shape);
      }
    }
  }

  if (curPiece.GetShape() != NoShape)
  {
    for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
    {
      int x = curX + curPiece.x(i);
      int y = curY + curPiece.y(i);

      DrawSquare(dc, 0 + x * SquareWidth(),
        boardTop + (BoardHeight - y - 1) * SquareHeight(),
        curPiece.GetShape());
    }
  }
}

void Board::OnKeyDown(wxKeyEvent & event)
{
  if (NoShape == (!isStarted || curPiece.GetShape()))
  {
    event.Skip();

    return;
  }

  int keycode = event.GetKeyCode();

  if ('p' == keycode || 'P' == keycode)
  {
    Pause();

    return;
  }

  if (isPaused)
  {
    return;
  }

  switch (keycode)
  {
  case WXK_LEFT:
    TryMove(curPiece, curX - 1, curY);

    break;

  case WXK_RIGHT:
    TryMove(curPiece, curX + 1, curY);

    break;

  case WXK_DOWN:
    TryMove(curPiece.RotateRight(), curX, curY);

    break;

  case WXK_UP:
    TryMove(curPiece.RotateLeft(), curX, curY);

    break;

  case WXK_SPACE:
    DropDown();

    break;

  case 'd':
    OneLineDown();

    break;

  case 'D':
    OneLineDown();

    break;

  default:
    event.Skip();
  };
}

void Board::OnTimer(wxCommandEvent & event)
{
  if (isFallingFinished)
  {
    isFallingFinished = false;
    NewPiece();
  }
  else
  {
    OneLineDown();
  }
}

void Board::ClearBoard()
{
  for (int i = 0; i < BoardHeight * BoardWidth; ++i)
  {
    board[i] = NoShape;
  }
}

void Board::DropDown()
{
  int newY = curY;

  while (newY > 0)
  {
    if (!TryMove(curPiece, curX, newY - 1))
    {
      break;
    }

    --newY;
  }

  PieceDropped();
}

void Board::OneLineDown()
{
  if (!TryMove(curPiece, curX, curY - 1))
  {
    PieceDropped();
  }
}

void Board::PieceDropped()
{
  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    int x = curX + curPiece.x(i);
    int y = curY - curPiece.y(i);

    ShapeAt(x, y) = curPiece.GetShape();
  }

  RemoveFullLines();

  if (!isFallingFinished)
  {
    NewPiece();
  }
}

void Board::RemoveFullLines()
{
  int numFullLines = 0;

  for (int i = BoardHeight - 1; i >= 0; --i)
  {
    bool lineIsFull = true;

    for (int j = 0; j < BoardWidth; ++j)
    {
      if (ShapeAt(j, i) == NoShape)
      {
        lineIsFull = false;

        break;
      }
    }

    if (lineIsFull)
    {
      ++numFullLines;

      for (int k = i; k < BoardHeight - 1; ++k)
      {
        for (int j = 0; j < BoardWidth; ++j)
        {
          ShapeAt(j, k) = ShapeAt(j, k + 1);
        }
      }
    }
  }

  if (numFullLines > 0)
  {
    numLinesRemoved += numFullLines;
    wxString str;
    str.Printf(wxT("%d"), numLinesRemoved);
    m_stsbar -> SetStatusText(str);

    isFallingFinished = true;
    curPiece.SetShape(NoShape);
    Refresh();
  }
}

void Board::NewPiece()
{
  curPiece.SetRandomShape();
  curX = BoardWidth / 2 + 1;
  curY = BoardHeight - 1 + curPiece.MinY();

  if (!TryMove(curPiece, curX, curY))
  {
    curPiece.SetShape(NoShape);
    timer -> Stop();
    isStarted = false;
    m_stsbar -> SetStatusText(wxT("Game Over"));
  }
}

bool Board::TryMove(const Shape & newPiece, int newX, int newY)
{
  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
  {
    int x = newX + newPiece.x(i);
    int y = newY + newPiece.y(i);

    if (x < 0 || x >= BoardWidth || y < 0 || y >= BoardHeight)
    {
      return false;
    }

    if (ShapeAt(x, y) != NoShape)
    {
      return false;
    }
  }

  curPiece = newPiece;
  curX = newX;
  curY = newY;

  Refresh();

  return true;
}

void Board::DrawSquare(wxPaintDC & dc, int x, int y, Tetrominoes shape)
{
  static wxColour colors [] = { wxColour(0, 0, 0), wxColour(204, 102, 102),
    wxColour(102, 204, 102), wxColour(102, 102, 204), wxColour(204, 204, 102),
    wxColour(204, 102, 204), wxColour(102, 204, 204), wxColour(218, 170, 0) };
  static wxColour light [] = { wxColour(0, 0, 0), wxColour(248, 159, 171),
    wxColour(121, 252, 121), wxColour(121, 121, 252), wxColour(252, 252, 121),
    wxColour(252, 121, 252), wxColour(121, 252, 252), wxColour(252, 198, 0) };
  static wxColour dark [] = { wxColour(0, 0, 0), wxColour(128, 59, 59),
    wxColour(59, 128, 59), wxColour(59, 59, 128), wxColour(128, 128, 59),
    wxColour(128, 59, 128), wxColour(59, 128, 128), wxColour(128, 98, 0) };

  wxPen pen(light[int(shape)]);
  pen.SetCap(wxCAP_PROJECTING);
  dc.SetPen(pen);

  dc.DrawLine(x, y + SquareHeight() - 1, x, y);
  dc.DrawLine(x, y, x + SquareWidth() - 1, y);

  wxPen darkpen(dark[int(shape)]);
  darkpen.SetCap(wxCAP_PROJECTING);
  dc.SetPen(darkpen);

  dc.DrawLine(x + 1, y + SquareHeight() - 1, x + SquareWidth() - 1,
    y + SquareHeight() - 1);
  dc.DrawLine(x + SquareWidth() - 1, y + SquareHeight() - 1,
    x + SquareWidth() - 1, y + 1);

  dc.SetPen( * wxTRANSPARENT_PEN);
  dc.SetBrush(wxBrush(colors[int(shape)]));
  dc.DrawRectangle(x + 1, y + 1, SquareWidth() - 2, SquareHeight() - 2);
}
tetris.h:
#ifndef __TETRIS_H__
#define __TETRIS_H__

#include "board.h"

class Tetris : public wxFrame
{
public:
  Tetris(const wxString & title);
};

#endif
tetris.cpp:
#include "tetris.h"

Tetris::Tetris(const wxString & title)
  : wxFrame(NULL, wxID_ANY, title, wxDefaultPosition, wxSize(180, 380))
{
  wxStatusBar * sb = CreateStatusBar();
  sb -> SetStatusText(wxT("0"));

  Board * board = new Board(this);
  board -> SetFocus();
  board -> Start();
}
main.h:
#ifndef __MAIN_H__
#define __MAIN_H__

#include "tetris.h"

class MyApp : public wxApp
{
public:
  virtual bool OnInit();
};

#endif
main.cpp:
#include "main.h"

IMPLEMENT_APP(MyApp)

bool MyApp::OnInit()
{
  srand(time(NULL));

  Tetris * tetris = new Tetris(wxT("Tetris"));
  tetris -> Centre();
  tetris -> Show(true);

  return true;
}

Having a hard time getting Eclipse + Android to install the necessary libraries

24 May 2013 - 08:54 AM

I'm following this tutorial:

http://www.if-not-true-then-false.com/2010/android-sdk-and-eclipse-adt-on-fedora-centos-red-hat-rhel/

 

I get to the part "3.3 Select Android DDMS..."  I try to install Android DDMS and this is what I get:

Cannot complete the install because of a conflicting dependency.

  Software being installed: Android DDMS 22.0.0.v201305140200--675183 (com.android.ide.eclipse.ddms.feature.group 22.0.0.v201305140200--675183)
  Software currently installed: Shared profile 1.0.0.1319545487260 (SharedProfile_PlatformProfile 1.0.0.1319545487260)
  Only one of the following can be installed at once: 
    Eclipse UI 3.7.0.I20110602-0100 (org.eclipse.ui 3.7.0.I20110602-0100)
    Eclipse UI 3.6.1.M20100826-1330 (org.eclipse.ui 3.6.1.M20100826-1330)
    Eclipse UI 3.7.0.v20110928-1505 (org.eclipse.ui 3.7.0.v20110928-1505)
  Cannot satisfy dependency:
    From: Shared profile 1.0.0.1319545487260 (SharedProfile_PlatformProfile 1.0.0.1319545487260)
    To: org.eclipse.ui [3.6.1.M20100826-1330]
  Cannot satisfy dependency:
    From: Android DDMS 22.0.0.v201305140200--675183 (com.android.ide.eclipse.ddms.feature.group 22.0.0.v201305140200--675183)
    To: org.eclipse.ui 3.6.2
 
... and this is where I'm stuck.  How else can I install Android DDMS?

How would you concatenate an array of strings together?

10 May 2013 - 09:53 PM

Ok, say you pass in an array of strings and want to concatenate them together into one mega-string. What would be the best way? I don't see how a loop can't possibly involved, no?

[C#] Need help with Hopfield ANN

07 May 2013 - 02:34 PM

Hi, I attached my code for your convenience.

This problem stems from my lack of understanding of how Hopfield Artificial Neural Networks (this applies to my understanding of all artificial neural networks) work. I think I have the concept behind "learning" down (for the most part), but when it comes to using the "trained" matrix to recognize a pattern, that's where I'm falling on my face.

I've attached the files as links to make it easier for some:
http://bin.cakephp.org/view/1255828170
http://bin.cakephp.org/view/873169308
http://bin.cakephp.org/view/908185693
http://bin.cakephp.org/view/152716718

The main method:
namespace artificialneuralnetwork
{
  class MainClass
  {
    public static string FormatBoolean(bool [] b)
    {
      System.Text.StringBuilder result = new System.Text.StringBuilder();

      result.Append ('[');

      for (int i = 0; i < b.Length; i++)
      {
        if (b[i])
        {
          result.Append ("T");
        }
        else
        {
          result.Append ("F");
        }

        if (i != b.Length - 1)
        {
          result.Append (",");
        }
      }

      result.Append (']');

      return result.ToString();
    }

    public static void Main (string[] args)
    {
      // create a neural network.
      HopfieldNetwork network = new HopfieldNetwork(4);
      // this pattern will be trained.
      //bool [] pattern1 = {true, true, false, false};
      bool [] pattern1 = {false, true, false, true};
      // this pattern will be represented.
      //bool [] pattern2 = {true, false, false, false};
      bool [] pattern2 = {true, true, false, true};
      bool [] result;

      // train the neural network with pattern1.
      System.Console.WriteLine("Training Hopfield network with: "
        + FormatBoolean(pattern1));
      network.Train(pattern1);
      // present pattern1 and see it recognized.
      System.Console.WriteLine("Presenting pattern: "
        + FormatBoolean(pattern1));
      // present pattern2, which is similar to pattern1.

      // pattern1 should be recalled.
      result = network.Present(pattern2);

      System.Console.WriteLine ("Presenting pattern: "
        + FormatBoolean(pattern1) + ", and got "
        + FormatBoolean(result) + " .");

      // present pattern2, which is similar to pattern1.  Pattern1 should be
      //  recalled.
      result = network.Present (pattern2);
      System.Console.WriteLine("Presenting pattern: "
        + FormatBoolean(pattern2) + ", and got "
        + FormatBoolean(result) + " .");

      // let's write more code, not less.
      System.Threading.Thread.Sleep(100000);
    }
  }
}
I'm still debugging and trying to figure what's going on, but I'd really love some help on trying to wrap my mind around this concept.

Why am I getting this IndexOutOfRangeException?

06 May 2013 - 09:07 PM

Hi, this is my code.
public Matrix GetCol (int col)
{
  if (col > this.Cols)
  {
    throw new System.Exception("Can't get column #" + col
      + " because it's greater than the number of columns " + this.Cols
      + ".");
  }

  double [,] newMatrix = new double[this.Rows, 1];

  for (int row = 0; 0 < this.Rows; row++)
  {
    newMatrix[row, 0] =  // HERE!!!!
      this.matrix[row, col];
  }

  return new Matrix(newMatrix);
}
I traced my code and on the line indicated, I get an System.IndexOutOfRangeException. This... makes zero sense. This is a single-threaded application and this.Rows is not being modified. So why is there an exception in there?

PARTNERS