No, Unity doesn't really offer much when it comes to data storage. I would argue that you want to keep it in some sort of external format such as XML so that you can make quick changes outside of the editor. But if you really wanted to keep it in the editor, this data could just be public variables on any sort of GameObject, which you'd edit in the inspector like any other. But there are many downsides - renaming fields may destroy the data, the data has to be in a type that C# can serialise (or you write a custom serialiser for it), adding and removing entries in a list is awkward, etc.
But, if you really want to be 'artist friendly' then sure, you could insist on having this stuff in the editor. You might want to write some custom inspectors or editor extensions to make it easy. As long as the end result is changing values on game objects that are in the scene, that's much the same as storing it in an external data file.