It's hard to say without more context, but you're probably talking about the collection of rendering API state required to draw a scene. Your rendering API is generally OpenGL or Direct3D, and the "state" refers to all the various things you can configure or twiddle in the rendering of a scene. This includes but is not limited to:
- which shader is active at each stage of the pipeline (vertex, geometry, fragment, et cetera)
- which textures are active
- which buffers are active
- how blending is configured
- which color, depth, stencil, et cetera writes are active, and which related tests are active
- which target or targets to render to
and so on.