I'm using the built-in Visual Studio "Dark" Theme with colors from the Solarized Color Palette for syntax highlighting. The designer of that palette lists all kinds of color theory stuff that he took into account, all I know is that the colors contrast perfectly and that the brightness is very consistent.
I'm using the Lucida Console font because I find it more readable than serif fonts.
The width of the code view is set to show exactly 100 columns because I dislike horizontal scrolling, so I break my lines before that length (traditional 80x25 feels just a little bit short for modern code and 100x37 is the next larger terminal size).
EDIT: As requested by asvsfs, also providing the vssettings files: