Is there something specific you are trying to learn about?
Be aware that there are many tutorials, guides, and books that have terrible errors and major flaws. Others cover the language well but are difficult to read or present the material poorly.
There are also many outdated books that no longer apply. The history of C++ goes back to around 1979 as a C compiler, the name changed to "C++" in 1983. If you pick up a book describing C++ as it existed in 1983 or 1989 or 1995 the code will probably not build on a modern c++ compiler.
As Josh mentioned, design patterns are just names for common things. Like "Peer to peer", or "shared blackboard", or "event driven system", or "factory method". They are common patterns encountered all the time in software that people give names to easier communication.
It is like a mechanic talking about "skew gears", "reduction gears", "miter gears", "worm gears", "rack and pinion gears", etc. You don't have to use all of them in projects, but they are useful to know so everyone can mean the same thing when they talk about it. They can say "Rack and pinion" and you know "a wheel on one side, a bar or track on the other".
The are things you will eventually learn, but it is not essential that you learn all the common patterns up front. You will learn about them, see them, and have them described to you often enough as you learn. Eventually you'll probably want to read some books to ensure you've got the basics covered, but it isn't necessary for the beginner.