Instead of Qt / Cocos2d-x, I made a start with Eclipse & libGDX, using this nice step by step tutorial:
And the nice part is that libGDX comes with a setup that already generates your project/framework for multiple devices if you like (Android, iOS, PC, webbrowser). With minimum programming, I already had some sprites flying around on the (Android) phone. I know that's still a far throw from an actual game, but being used to making harsh engines for years before you could see something nice on your screen, that's a real relief!
Thanks for pointing me here guys!