Personally, I would start with something old, to seek for origins of the field. There are some old books worth reading.
"Graphics Programming Black Book" by Abrash.
"Graphics Gems" series.
Glassner's book on ray-tracing.
Aforementioned Foley's book.
Max_spectra: it depends on what kind of games you want to do. AAA titles are generally written in C++ (C and assembler in good, old days), so it has to be best language for programming spectacular games.
If I were you, I would not bother with languages like Python, Ruby, Java, C#, because programs written in them are slow as hell.
Instead, I would recommend C, C++, Ada or - which I think is the best option - D.