I dunno, you ask for cultures and you list biomes and races as examples.
I would think 'cultures' would go more along the lines of these, each as a distribution on a range, some with examples from history.
centralized/distributed (think 17th C. France vs. Roma or Diaspora Jews)
closed/open (think Amish vs. late 19th C. America)
monotheistic/polytheistic (1st C. Jews vs. Romans)
militaristic/peaceful (7th C. Arabs and the spread of Islam vs. the Tang Dynasty under Xuanzong in China)
sedentary/nomadic (Han vs. Mongol)
subsistence/abundance (18th C. !Kung vs. Salish)
Then there are subcultures. Think of Caribbean pirates of the 18th century or the Church and Thieves subcultures in Hugo's Hunchback of Notre Dame.