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  • 09/22/17 03:19 AM

    Resolving build issues for UWP packages with Unity

    Engines and Middleware

    SimonDarksideJ

    Image result for visual studio tools for unity

    If you are building games and projects in Unity and targeting the Universal Windows Platform (UWP), you may have noticed than in the recent Unity releases this was actually broken. What you end up seeing in your build UWP project in visual studio is the following error:

    The command “”C:\ <Project>\Export\UWP\Unity\Tools\SerializationWeaver\SerializationWeaver.exe” “C:\ <Project>\Export\UWP\GeneratedProjects\UWP\Assembly-CSharp-firstpass\bin\x64\Debug\Unprocessed\Assembly-CSharp-firstpass.dll” “-pdb” “-verbose” “-unity-engine=C:\ <Project>\Export\UWP\Lonely Shadows\Unprocessed\UnityEngine.dll” “C:\ <Project>\Export\UWP\GeneratedProjects\UWP\Assembly-CSharp-firstpass\obj\x64\Debug\x64\Debug” “-lock=C:\ <Project>\Export\UWP\GeneratedProjects\UWP\Assembly-CSharp-firstpass\project.lock.json” “@C:\ <Project>\Export\UWP\GeneratedProjects\UWP\Assembly-CSharp-firstpass\SerializationWeaverArgs.txt” “-additionalAssemblyPath=C:\ <Project>\Export\UWP\Lonely Shadows\Unprocessed” “-unity-networking=C:\ <Project>\Export\UWP\Lonely Shadows\Unprocessed\UnityEngine.Networking.dll”” exited with code 1.
    Assembly-CSharp-firstpass          C:\ <Project>\Export\UWP\GeneratedProjects\UWP\Assembly-CSharp-firstpass\Assembly-CSharp-firstpass.csproj   

    If you dig further, you may also expose the underlying error code here:

    System.Collections.Generic.KeyNotFoundException: The given key was not present in the dictionary.
       at System.ThrowHelper.ThrowKeyNotFoundException()
       at System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary`2.get_Item(TKey key)
       at UnityEditor.Scripting.Compilers.NuGetPackageResolver.Resolve()
       at Unity.NuGetAssemblyResolver..ctor(String projectLockFile)
       at usw.Weaver.ReaderParameters(String assemblyPath, ConversionOptions options)
       at usw.Weaver.Weave()
       at usw.Program.RunProgram(ConversionOptions options)
       at usw.Program.Main(String[] args)

    This prevents you building / updating projects from Unity to the UWP Platform.

    Once discovered, both Unity and Microsoft worked closely together to resolve the issues and updated their respective parts as quickly as possible.


    Fixing the problem

    The fix for this problem is fairly easy. However, it is a little time consuming (unless you have a mega fast download connection) as mostly it requires updating to the latest Unity and Visual Studio patch releases.

    1: Install Unity 2017.1p5 or 2017.2.0f3

    Image result for unity logo

    The first step, is to simply update your installation of Unity:

    • If you are on Unity 2017, then this is 2017.1p5 (or newer)
    • If you are on Unity 2017.2, then this is 2017.2.0f3 (or newer)
    • For the 5.x cycle, just update to the latest patch (although I haven’t tested this)

    This will update both Unity and your install of the Visual Studio Tools for Unity

    2: Update VS 2017 to 15.3.3

    Once Unity is up to date, you will need to update your installation of Visual Studio.  If you are still on VS 2015, then there is no action but you won’t be able to build UWP packages targeting the newer Creators update and won’t be able to build Mixed Reality platform.

    I highly recommend updating to 2017, even the free Community edition of 2017 (which is free) if you are doing UWP development.  It’s just better.

    To update Visual Studio 2017, simple close all open instances of Visual Studio and launch the Visual Studio Installer

    image

    Once it’s running (the first step may be to update the installer first), simply hit “Update” on your specific instance of Visual Studio (the installer will happily update ALL installed instances if you wish) and once it’s complete you will be on the latest version.

    Open Visual Studio to verify, click “Help –> About Visual Studio” in the menu and you should be running 15.3.3 (or newer). If not, check your internet connection and try running the installer again.

    image

    3: (Optional) Set player settings for project to .NET & .NET4.6 
    (NOT IL2CPP, XBL project does not have support for IL2CPP, yet)

    Not strictly required but highly recommended for UWP projects, is to update the .NET Api Compatibility Level that is used in your built project.  This allows you to use more modern C# 6 functionality if you wish without causing errors when you build it in Unity.

    To update this, open the Player Settings window in the editor using either “Edit –> Project Settings –> Player” in the editor menu, or using the “Player Settings” button on the “Build Settings” build window.  In the Other section on this configuration page you will find the following settings.

    image

    Not to be confused with the “Scripting Runtime Version”, which I’m told breaks UWP project builds using Xbox Live (although I haven’t personally tested yet)

    Quote

    *Note, I'm not saying don't use IL2CPP (which is required for some Unity features, such as the new Post Processing stack) as it is a cleaner build.  It's just NOT compatible with the Xbox-Live-Unity plugin at present.

    4: Build project targeting UWP SDK 14393 or higher

    To build for Modern UWP, you need to be targeting a minimum API level of 14393 (Anniversary Edition), For Mixed Reality builds you will need a minimum API level of 15063 (Creators Update).  Either will work but you need to ensure you select the version that is right for your target.  The current advice with new builds is to always target the latest but that is completely up to you.

    You will find the SDK selection on the “Build Settings” screen when you have the “Universal Windows Platform” target selected:

    image

    5: Open project in VS

    Once you have built your project, open it in Visual Studio to continue.

    6: UPDATE NETCore NuGet package to 5.4+ <- without this, it still doesn’t work

    In testing I have found this is critical still for existing projects or when you build your first (ever) UWP project, you need to have the latest NETCore NuGet package downloaded and available else it will fail.  you don’t have to update the other NuGet packages if you don’t want to (UWP Packages come bundled with the Application Insights NuGets for Windows Store integration for example), just the NETCore package.

    When writing this article, I tried to replicate the error (after fixing it) and couldn’t generate the error even with new projects.  This step may not actually be needed but I still Highly Recommend updating any and all NuGet packages in your built project.

     

    If you are unsure as to what NuGet is, you can read all about it here. Basically, NuGet is a dependency manager for .NET solutions, allowing you to disconnect your project from the source of a dependency.  It can then be updated independently without affecting your project (unless the API changes).  You will find most modern .NET packages from Microsoft (like the .NET Framework) are now NuGet packages so they can more rapidly update the framework without having to build and distribute new MSI packages.

    To check and update the versions of the NuGet packages, right-click on the “Solution” in the “Solution Explorer” within Visual Studio and select “Manage NuGet Packages for Solution…

    image

    Alternatively, you can also simply right-Click the “References” branch in your projects structure, also in the “Solution Explorer” in VS, this however will only show/update the NuGet’s installed in that single project and not the entire solution:

    image

    Once the NuGet manager is open you will see the installed NuGet packages, with a notification if any updates are available (provided you have an internet connection).

    image

    Simply select the NuGet package to update, NETCore in this case, select the version to update to on the right and click “Install”.   You will then be walked through a set of screens to accept the license for that package (if one exists) and then a final “get out of jail free” accept or reject screen.   Once complete, all the required references included in that package will be updated.

    7: Build and Run for x64 only (x86 or Arm is a no go still)

    With everything in place, all that is left is to build your project. By default, Unity still insists on selecting the ARM platform as the default (don’t know why but I guess it’s too small a thing to want to change), so you will need to update this to the x64 platform (don’t use x86 unless you really need it, most UWP systems all target x64 now).  After that, you can build.

    If you are unsure about which Solution Configuration to select (read, Build Type), remember what they are there for:

    • Debug

      Used obviously for debugging, enables extra debugging information to be sent to an attached instance of Visual Studio (whether you run it from Visual Studio or just “attach” to it later).  Will cause a performance hit when running but this is needed so you can walk through the code if there are any issues.  It will also enable the debug window inside Unity to report errors to the screen should they occur.

    • Release

      Builds the project but without all the debugging stuff. just runs your project.  With Unity however, it’s keen to note you are still running your entire project with all the superfluous code that Unity has in a project.  DO NOT SHIP THIS!!!

    • Master

      This is a special Solution Configuration (just for Unity) that also runs code in Unity to strip mine unnecessary code / services and packages everything together neatly.  This makes your Unity project run as fast as it can.  <- SHIP/PUBLISH THIS!!!


    All well and good

    With everything in this article, you should have no further issues building your UWP projects and once you have gone through it at least once (I’ve found) you need not do it again (apart from updating NuGets, you should always do that)

    Any issues, let me know or comment on this post. 

     

    datesgrey-pdn

     


      Report Article


    User Feedback


    In response to Tautvydas Zilys comments (who is an awesome member of the Unity team!)

    1. I wouldn't recommend saying "no to IL2CPP" right away, especially if you haven't tried it. It is the future of scripting on UWP in Unity, and it is the default scripting backend for UWP in Unity 2017.2. We have no known issues with Xbox Live on IL2CPP, and there have been multiple games that shipped with IL2CPP and Xbox Live functionality. It also enables you to port your game to UWP much quicker compared to using .NET scripting backend, since you have exact same C# API surface on IL2CPP as other Unity platforms. On .NET, you only get a small "Microsoft blessed" subset of APIs.

    (SJ) Updated article to highlight this only relates to IL2CPP use with the Xbox Live Unity plugin.  There are many great features with IL2CPP that are worth exploring.

    2. 2017.2p9 doesn't exist. I assume you meant 2017.2.0b9?

    (SJ) I stand corrected.  Also updated since 2017.2 is now released

    3. "Not to be confused with the “Scripting Runtime Version”, which I’m told breaks UWP project builds" - that sounds like something that should be reported to us and addressed. I haven't heard anyone complain about this.

    (SJ) Tested myself with the Xbox Live Unity plugin and it doesn't work.  In fact any build attempting to use the Unity.Tasks DLL breaks using that build and makes Async inaccessible

    4. There is only one reason to target Windows SDK 14393 or newer: if you want to use APIs added to that SDK. Using any SDK is perfectly valid for shipping a UWP game.

    (SJ) Incorrect. Xbox LIVE is only supported from 14393 onwards.  This article was solely about Xbox Live UWP support, not general UPWP support (which yes, you can use any build that meets your criteria)

    5. The Unity logo is bastardized. I'm not sure where you took it from. You can find the proper one here: https://unity3d.com/public-relations/brand

    (SJ) The original logo did come from the Unity site, but I will use the updated branding in articles going forward. Thanks for the link

    As a side note.  There is now a way to use Xbox Live and IL2CPP but it is not for the feint hearted. You can't use the handy Xbox Live Unity asset (that won't work atm), so you have to build it yourself from scratch.
    See this article for more details:
    https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/uwp/xbox-live/get-started-with-partner/partner-unity-uwp-il2cpp

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      Some players, when they find out about DDA, hate it. Especially when DDA cannot be turned off, the player ends up feeling patronized, and not respected by the game as an adult, capable of taking on challenges and improving him/herself. Players can, and will, learn to exploit DDA by pretending to be worse at playing than they actually are. And oftentimes, a DDA system will require some sort of break time in order to avoid revealing itself to the player, thus not able to quickly adapt itself to the player’s ostensible skill level. DDA inhibits the player’s ability to learn and improve. As soon as the player improves, the difficulty ramps up to match their skill level, thus eliminating the possibility of positive results. If the player cannot see some sort of feedback from the game regarding their performance, they cannot know whether any changes in their approach to gameplay were effective. DDA may create absurdities. One of the popular example of DDA going awry is the rubber-band effect in racing games, where opponents speed up and slow down seemingly for no reason in order to adapt to the player’s performance. DDA is incompatible with some forms of challenge. If the challenge in question is numerically-based, then DDA can work easily. However, when the challenge is symbolical, with pre-designed elements that are nakedly visible to the player, often having only one or a few intended solutions, then DDA cannot work. There are many interesting and nuanced approaches to DDA that I won’t mention since that’s beyond the scope of this segment. While I imagine there are going to be a lot of way to make DDA functional and sufficiently inscrutable through clever algorithms and implementation, I am rather discussing the fundamentals.
      Organic Difficulty in Games
      There seems to be a number of different terms to address this approach, but just for this article I’m going to use the term “Organic Difficulty.” This is something that has been tossed around in the last decade or so.
      The basic idea of Organic Difficulty is that the game does not ask the players to select or adjust their preferred difficulty via GUI-based commands, nor does it automatically adapt itself to match with the player’s performance and progress. But rather, the game allows the player to interact with it in certain ways to make it easier, or harder, for themselves. These take the form of tools, approaches, strategies, input sequences or methods, etc. which should often come with some sort of trade-off.
      This is something that has been implemented in a number of games including From Software’s Dark Souls, which Extra Credits has dedicated an entire episode to, and which everyone should take a look.

      In Metal Gear Solid V, for every mission the player has completed, there’s a score rating system which provides a rough overview of the player’s performance based on a number of factors such as stealth, lethality, accuracy, completion speed, whether the player has completed any mission tasks, and what tools they used. While the player does get minus points for mistakes such as getting detected, raising enemy alert, taking hits, etc. some other factors are not as clear-cut as to how they constitute minus points aside from narrative reasons. The player can always go on a lethal rampage, tossing grenades at everybody in sight, or calling a support helicopter to airstrike the entire enemy base. The player is provided the tools to do exactly all of those, and they’re always just a few buttons away, and the worst they get is a C rank, provided they completed the mission, and a slight dip in their earnings.

      Another example of this can be found XCOM: Enemy Within. There's a "cheesy" tactic in the game that can almost ensure victory, which is to have a unit with the Mimetic Skin ability to safely spot the enemies, thus enabling a squadsight-sniper from across the entire map to pick them off one-by-one safely without any real repercussion. This strategy is extremely effective in virtually every mechanical aspect of combat, with the only risk being that the spotter must not be flanked for they would instantly lose invisibility. The actual problem with this strategy is that it’s incredibly boring: your snipers just simply shoot every turn, and you can only take a few shots every turn, not to mention reloading. This strategy is best suited for beginners and people who have made mistakes and want to get out of the downward spiral. While on the other end of the spectrum, there are players who understand how the game and the AI of every alien unit in the game work, so they are more confident about moving up close and personal with enemies with minimal armor. Because for them, it's not about defending against the enemies, but about manipulating, "nudging" the enemies into behaving the way these players want them to (e.g. nobody needs armor when enemies are only going to attack the tank; nobody needs to take good cover when enemies are too scared to move to flank in front of an Opportunist-overwatch unit; etc.)

      The above examples seem to imply a few important points regarding difficulty:
      Difficulty should not only be designed around the mechanics of a game. It should also take into account the aesthetics or elegance of those very mechanics. Punishment does not always have to be tangible or significant, as long as it is enough to indicate to players that they are straying off the intended experience. A good analogy would be physical pain. The pain itself is not what’s causing harm to your body. The physical wound is. Pain is merely a bodily signal to let you know that what’s happening right now is pretty bad and you probably shouldn’t let what just happened happen again. But remember, the choice is ultimately yours! It may not be a good idea to put people on the linear graph of "gaming skill" where some people are simply "softcore, not-so-good at video games" and some other are "hardcore and always challenge-seeking." The idea alone is absurd, because players on such a graph would move up and down constantly, even during a single playthrough. Some people pick things up faster than a game can predict with its tutorials' pacing. Some people due to real life reasons have to abandon the game for some time, and they lose a bit of their touch when they come back to it. Instead of judging the player’s skill and trying to accommodate every possibility, games should be judging player interactions instead, using a spectrum between Effectiveness and Aesthetics of Play (or what I shall humbly name Ludoaesthetics). The Effectiveness-Ludoaesthetics Spectrum (ELS)
      On the Effectiveness-Ludoaesthetics Spectrum (ELS), difficulty exists only at the lowest technical level. Each end of the ELS represents what each player wants at a certain point in the game with certain conditions. On this spectrum, games are designed with the player’s interactions, approaches and strategies in mind, each with its own degree of effectiveness and ludoaesthetics. These are not solely defined by mechanics or the player’s skill level, but rather the way in which they are experienced and perceived by the player.

      Effectiveness refers to how well the player can progress and achieve their goals in a game using the set of tools they’re given and the strategies they’re allowed to formulate. How easy those tools are to use, and how good they are at helping the player progress towards the game’s intended goals, primarily constitute Effectiveness. Players who aim towards and stay on this end primarily look for the most effective ways to achieve the intended goals of the game (which of course include playing the game the easy way).
      Ludoaesthetics refers to the perceivable aesthetic appeals of the aforementioned set of tools and strategies given to the players. Players who aim towards this end do not necessarily look for the most effective ways to achieve the intended goals. But rather they tend to look for the added intrinsic benefits derived from unconventional play. These benefits include:
      Superficial Attractiveness: Visual and auditory appeal of using the subject matter or the subject matter itself. It can be represented by any entity the player can recognize in the game such as a character with great visual design, a badass-looking weapon with satisfying visual and sound effects, etc. Competitiveness: a.k.a. bragging rights. This is rather self-explanatory. There is always that portion of players who keep seeking greater and greater challenges to prove themselves to the world. They may even go as far as handicapping themselves with arbitrary limitations to heighten the challenge. Greater sense of satisfaction derived from greater challenges that may go beyond the goals intended by the game. People who have been through heights of overwhelming odds know about, and may expect, the immense amount of satisfaction that comes with them. Narrative Fantasy: Players may look for things that may not be effective or productive in terms of gameplay because they would align with the narrative better (in games that understandably contain some degree of ludonarrative dissonance), or they would add an extra layer of depth and intensity to the narrative and thereby enhancing it. Essentially, they’re sacrificing gameplay optimality to elevate their narrative fantasy. Design for Ludoaesthetics
      The point of designing for ludoaesthetics is NOT to create increasingly harder challenges in order to accommodate the player’s increasing skills (though that is not to say such approach has no merits whatsoever). But rather, it is actually to encourage players to strive for aesthetics in their gameplay and to lean more towards the right side of the spectrum.
      Here are a few suggestions on how to go about it.
      Creating more depth
      Depth refers to the amount of space the player is allowed to make interesting choices using the set of tools they’re given by a game. For a more detailed explanation of what Depth is in comparison to Complexity, you can take a look at Extra Credits’ episode on Depth vs. Complexity.

      Essentially, Complexity is the amount of constituent elements that make up a game, and Depth is the degree of interactivity between those elements. The very nature of ludoaesthetics has to do with the deviation from the default, intended approach (a.k.a. Playing “by-the-book.”) Therefore, the more those elements “talk” to one another, the better chance it is for ludoaesthetics to emerge, because then the player will be able to find more different ways to control or manipulate each element.
      [Also read: Design for Theorycrafting]
      Depth is pretty much the prerequisite for ludoaesthetics even as a concept to exist. Without a lot of depth,  the window of opportunities for ludoaesthetics get significantly lower or completely non-existent.
      Creating patterns suggesting the possibility of gameplay aesthetics
      Adding more depth is not only about simply adding more stuff in a game and making them as obscure as they possibly can be. It is also about leaving breadcrumbs to suggest that there is more than meets the eye, therefore encouraging players to explore further possibilities. What kind of depth to even add? And how does one go about communicating it?
      Below is a conceptual representation of a set of challenges typically found in video games.

      Each challenge is represented by a window of failure and a window of success. These windows can be spatial, temporal, symbolic, strategic, or a combination of all. They are the spaces in which the player enters by behaving in a certain expected way. Secondly, the black line represents the player’s interactive maneuvers: where to get across and which direction to turn to next, in order to overcome the set of challenges without stumbling into the windows of failure.
      For example, say we have a situation in a 3D platformer game where the player is facing a pit, and across the pit leaning towards the right side there is a narrow platform. In such a scenario, we can assume that the window of failure includes any and all sets of behaviors that lead the player plummeting down the pit, and the window of failure includes those that lead the player to landing on the platform across the pit safely.
      Now consider the same representation of challenge above, but this time with  a slight deliberate arrangement.

      As you can see, the sizes of the windows of failure and the windows of success stay exactly the same, but the positions of the windows of success have been altered so that they align somewhat (but not exactly aligned to the point of being too obvious). You can see that nested within the windows of success is a narrower window where the amount of the player’s maneuvers stays extremely minimal. Stepping into this window offers the opportunity for a non-disrupted gameplay flow, where a deliberate and guided set of behaviors will let the player “breeze” through the challenges seemingly almost with ease. This window is where ludoaesthetics occur.
      Of course, the downsides of it are aplenty: it can be extremely difficult to realize such a window exists in a real scenario. And in order to stay inside such a narrow window, the player has to be extremely precise and/or smart in their gameplay. You can think of this window of non-disrupted flow as an intended “weak point” of the challenge, where a single and concentrated attack will break the whole thing apart in one fell swoop. But the process of identifying such a weak point, and delivering the finishing blow with great accuracy may require a lot of trials and errors, and can be extremely tedious and/or difficult.
      An Example from Master Spy
      A common manifestation of ludoaesthetics comes in the form of speedrunning. Finishing with speed is, for the majority of games, not the primary intended goal. Games are rarely ever designed to be speedrun, and most players do not have to finish any games at high speed in order to not miss anything. So speedrunning has always been a sort of arbitrary self-imposed challenge by those who seek greater sense of enjoyment from their favorite games.
      However, there are a few exceptions. And you can find the above mentioned window of non-disrupted flow in levels like this one from Master Spy by Kris Truitt.

      In this game you play the role of the Master Spy, to infiltrate ridiculously well-guarded buildings, palaces and fortresses with a huge number of different enemies, hazards and contraptions standing in your way. And you are given no tools whatsoever but an invisibility cloak that can help you sneak past the eyesight of certain enemies while halving your movement speed.
      In the example above, your goal is to retrieve the keycard on the other side of the wall slightly to the right of your starting point, and then to escape through the white door right above your starting point safely. And while your cloak can get you past the eyesight of the guards, it is of no use whatsoever against the dogs, who can smell you even when you’re cloaked and will sprint forwards to attack you at horrendous speed as soon as you’re on the same ground as them.
      So what you have to do as a sequence of actions in this level is first to cloak yourself, then drop down from the first ledge past the the first guard, then quickly decloak to regain speed as the cloak is useless against the incoming dogs. Then before the first dog reaches you, move forward to the right, then quickly jump up. Keep jumping to retrieve the keycard while avoiding the second and third dog. Cloak up, then get on the ledge with the three moving guards. Finally, jump to the left to reach your destination.
      However, as you can see from the footage above (courtesy of a speedrunner nicknamed Obidobi), as soon as the player reaches the ledge with the three moving guards on the right, the guards turn to the other side and begin moving away from where the player is, effectively freeing the player from having to cloak and having their movement speed halved. And then right before the player reaches for the white door, the guard on the far right is about to touch the wall and thereby turning back to the left. This is such a tiny window of success that should the player not have begun moving right after they start the level and stayed uncloaked at the end, they would have failed. The level is designed in such a way that it can be completely solved without wasting any moment and action.
      Is it significantly more difficult to play this way? Yes. Was this arrangement absolutely necessary? Not really. But the designer made the level with the expectation that people are going to speedrun the game and will be looking to optimize their timing with each level. Thus, the levels in Master Spy are designed so that should the player start looking to speedrun the game, they will easily recognize that sweet, sweet window of non-disrupted flow. It is an immensely satisfying experience to discover it.
      Ensure Usability
      As usual, it is easy to get too extremely logical about design and forget all about the equilibrium, which is almost always what design is about.
      In this case, it is important that designers must ensure that whatever tools they’re making for their players to achieve ludoaesthetics, MUST have at least some sort of usability, even if it’s incredibly niche or extremely difficult to pull off. Things that serve nothing and mean nothing are NOT aesthetic. Say you have an RPG, and one of your players goes out of their way in order to build an unconventional character because they see some sort of future potential from this build, only to find out later that when they’re finished with the build, the meta of the game has changed and the window of opportunity for such a build has long passed. This means that the entire amount of depth you added, and the ludoaesthetics you might have intended by allowing that player to go in such away, is utterly useless and entirely wasted. So always remember to ensure usability for everything you add in your game.
      Conclusion
      Organic Difficulty and the ELS are not only, and not necessarily, an alternative solution to the whole difficulty problem. But rather, they represent an entire paradigm shift away from the idea that games should find more and more complex ways to serve players with different skill levels, and towards a design philosophy where players are given integrated tools within the context of games to set their own difficulty at any point without breaking immersion and perhaps the extra baggage of shame. It is not enough to have your players stay at the same level of difficulty throughout the game, or dynamically adjust the difficulty on the fly to suit them. It is best, in my opinion, to let your players cook to their palate. Just make sure that the process of cooking and the game itself are one and the same.
      References
      The Designer's Notebook: Difficulty Modes and Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment (2008) by Earnest Adams. Retrieved at https://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/132061/the_designers_notebook_.php The case for dynamic difficulty adjustment in games (2005) by Robin Hunicke Cognitive Flow: The Psychology of Great Game Design (2012) by Sean Baron. Retrieved at http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/166972/cognitive_flow_the_psychology_of_.php Depth vs. Complexity (2013) by Extra Credits. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jVL4st0blGU The True Genius of Dark Souls II (2014) by Extra Credits. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MM2dDF4B9a4 What Makes Celeste's Assist Mode Special | Game Maker's Toolkit (2018) by Mark Brown. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NInNVEHj_G4
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