• 08/17/10 12:23 PM
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    A Type-safe Generic Pointer

    General and Gameplay Programming


    Introduction
    Sometimes there comes the need to store a pointer to an object whose type is not known at compile-time. The common method to achieve this in C++ is to store it in a void pointer. The void pointer can then be cast back to the appropriate type and used when required. Call-back functions[sup][1][/sup] in libraries are a well-known example of this method; the user-data pointer is often a void pointer. This works, but has a glaring problem: it's not type-safe; it's up to the programmer to interpret the void pointer in the appropriate manner. Although programmers are quite used to taking care when dealing with void pointers, every once in a while a void pointer gets accidently cast to the wrong type of object. When this happens, the programmer is actually considered lucky if a crash occurs.


    Enter any_ptr
    The any_ptr smart pointer[sup][2][/sup] can point to any type of object and provide type-safe access to it. In some sense, any_ptr is to pointers what boost::any[sup][3][/sup] is to objects. There are no requirements to be fulfilled by the types of objects that any_ptr can point to. In fact, the performance and size penalty incurred by its use is so low, that it could potentially be used almost wherever a void pointer is required. To start using any_ptr, we simply add a single header any_ptr.h (see source code accompanying this article) to our project. any_ptr has no dependencies on any library and can be used independently. any_ptr also does not require exceptions[sup][5][/sup] or RTTI[sup][6][/sup] to be enabled.


    Type-safety
    any_ptr behaves almost like a void pointer, except for when it is type-cast. A cast to the wrong type of pointer will yield a null pointer which the programmer can check for.
    Example
    int a = 10; any_ptr pAny = &a; int *pA = pAny; // 'pA' will point to 'a'; type-compatible float *pB = pAny; // 'pB' will point to null; type-incompatible
    Const-correctness
    any_ptr also takes care of const-correctness[sup][4][/sup]; a cast to an incompatible type with respect to const-correctness will yield a null pointer.
    Example 1
    int a = 10; any_ptr pAny = &a; const int *p1 = pAny; // 'p1' will point to 'a'; const-compatible int *p2 = pAny; // 'p2' will point to 'a'; const-compatible
    Example 2
    const int a = 10; any_ptr pAny = &a; const int *p1 = pAny; // 'p1' will point to 'a'; const-compatible int *p2 = pAny; // 'p2' will point to null; const-incompatible
    Example: passing user-data to call-back functions
    Instead of using raw void pointers, any_ptr could be used to pass user-defined data into call-back functions. This would provide the author of the call-back function with type-safe access to the user-defined data. Consider the following pseudo-code: #include #include // Call back for key presses typedef void (*KeyPressedCallback)(void *pUserData); class KeyPressNotifier { private: struct RegistrationInfo { KeyPressedCallback _pCallback; void *_pUserData; }; typedef std::map InfoMap; InfoMap _infoMap; public: void Register(int key, KeyPressedCallback pCallback, void *pUserData) { RegistrationInfo &info = _infoMap[key]; info._pCallback = pCallback; info._pUserData = pUserData; } void UpdateKeyPress(int key) { InfoMap::const_iterator itr = _infoMap.find( key ); if( itr != _infoMap.end() ) itr->second._pCallback( itr->second._pUserData ); } }; void OnAccelerate(void *pUserData) { // Expect the speed to be passed in float *pSpeed = static_cast(pUserData); assert( pSpeed ); // Increment speed ++(*pSpeed); } void OnDrinkPotion(void *pUserData) { // Expect the health to be passed in int *pHealth = static_cast(pUserData); assert( pHealth ); // Increment health ++(*pHealth); } enum Keys { UpArrowKey, EnterKey }; int main(int /*argc*/, char * /*argv*/[]) { KeyPressNotifier notifier; float speed = 10.5f; notifier.Register( UpArrowKey, OnAccelerate, &speed ); float health = 100; notifier.Register( EnterKey, OnDrinkPotion, &health ); notifier.UpdateKeyPress( UpArrowKey ); notifier.UpdateKeyPress( EnterKey ); assert( speed == 11.5f ); assert( health == 101 ); } On first look the code above seems okay, but there's a bug. In the OnDrinkPotion function, the player health is expected to be passed in as an integer. If null is passed in, an assertion failure is triggered. Now although the player health is passed in, its type is of float. In this case, since the pointer obtained from the void pointer to user-data is invalid but not null, no assertion failure is triggered. In this simple example, the consequences of this bug are not much. But imagine this simple example's real-life counterpart with complex objects being passed in as user-data instead of primitive types. In this scenario, simply replacing the void pointers with any_ptrs provides increased type-safety. The following is the same code as above, but with any_ptrs used instead of void pointers:

    #include "any_ptr.h" #include #include // Call back for key presses typedef void (*KeyPressedCallback)(any_ptr pUserData); class KeyPressNotifier { private: struct RegistrationInfo { KeyPressedCallback _pCallback; any_ptr _pUserData; }; typedef std::map InfoMap; InfoMap _infoMap; public: void Register(int key, KeyPressedCallback pCallback, any_ptr pUserData) { RegistrationInfo &info = _infoMap[key]; info._pCallback = pCallback; info._pUserData = pUserData; } void UpdateKeyPress(int key) { InfoMap::const_iterator itr = _infoMap.find( key ); if( itr != _infoMap.end() ) itr->second._pCallback( itr->second._pUserData ); } }; void OnAccelerate(any_ptr pUserData) { // Expect the speed to be passed in float *pSpeed = static_cast(pUserData); assert( pSpeed ); // Increment speed ++(*pSpeed); } void OnDrinkPotion(any_ptr pUserData) { // Expect the health to be passed in int *pHealth = static_cast(pUserData); assert( pHealth ); // Increment health ++(*pHealth); } enum Keys { UpArrowKey, EnterKey }; int main(int /*argc*/, char * /*argv*/[]) { KeyPressNotifier notifier; float speed = 10.5f; notifier.Register( UpArrowKey, OnAccelerate, &speed ); float health = 100; notifier.Register( EnterKey, OnDrinkPotion, &health ); notifier.UpdateKeyPress( UpArrowKey ); notifier.UpdateKeyPress( EnterKey ); assert( speed == 11.5f ); assert( health == 101 ); } When the author of the OnDrinkPotion function tries to access the player's health through the any_ptr assuming it to be an integer, the cast yields a null pointer. This causes the author's assertion in the next line to fail, alerting the author that something is wrong.
    Using any_ptr with existing call-back functions
    Unlike the previous example, existing library code can't always be freely modified to make use of any_ptrs in place of void pointers. In this case, instead of passing a void pointer to the required data, the programmer could pass a void pointer to an any_ptr which points to the required data. A convention could be followed that user-data void pointers in call-back functions always point to any_ptrs. Although (for various practical reasons) some exceptions to the convention might be required occasionally, if used properly it could increase type-safety.
    Limitations


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