• # Checking the Unity C# Source Code

General and Gameplay Programming

Recently a long-awaited event has happen - Unity Technologies uploaded the C# source code of the game engine, available for free download on Github. The code of the engine and the editor is available. Of course, we couldn't pass up, especially since lately we've not written so many articles about checking projects on C#. Unity allows to use the provided sources only for information purposes. We'll use them exactly in these ways. Let's try out the latest version PVS-Studio 6.23 on the Unity code.

## Introduction

Previously we've written an article about checking Unity. At that time so much C#-code was not available for the analysis: some components, libraries and examples of usage. However, the author of the article managed to find quite interesting bugs.

How did Unity please us this time? I'm saying "please" and hope not to offend the authors of the project. Especially since the amount of the source Unity C#-code, presented on GitHub, is about 400 thousand lines (excluding empty) in 2058 files with the extension "cs". It's a lot, and the analyzer had a quite considerable scope.

Now about the results. Before the analysis, I've slightly simplified the work, having enabled the mode of the code display according to the CWE classification for the found bugs. I've also activated the warnings suppression mechanism of the third level of certainty (Low). These settings are available in the drop-down menu of PVS-Studio in Visual Studio development environment, and in the parameters of the analyzer. Getting rid of the warnings with low certainty, I made the analysis of the Unity source code. As a result, I got 181 warnings of the first level of certainty (High) and 506 warnings of the second level of certainty (Medium).

I have not studied absolutely all the warnings, because there were quite a lot of them. Developers or enthusiasts can easily conduct an in-depth analysis by testing Unity themselves. To do this, PVS-Studio provides free trial and free modes of using. Companies can also buy our product and get quick and detailed support along with the license.

Judging by the fact that I immediately managed to find couple of real bugs practically in every group of warnings with one or two attempts, there are a lot of them in Unity. And yes, they are diverse. Let's review the most interesting errors.

## Results of the check

Something's wrong with the flags

PVS-Studio warning: V3001 There are identical sub-expressions 'MethodAttributes.Public' to the left and to the right of the '|' operator. SyncListStructProcessor.cs 240

MethodReference GenerateSerialization()
{
....
MethodDefinition serializeFunc = new
MethodDefinition("SerializeItem", MethodAttributes.Public |
MethodAttributes.Virtual |
MethodAttributes.Public |  // <=
MethodAttributes.HideBySig,
Weaver.voidType);
....
}

When combining enumeration flags MethodAttributes, an error was made: the Public value was used twice. Perhaps, the reason for this is the wrong code formatting.

A similar bug is also made in code of the method GenerateDeserialization:

• V3001 There are identical sub-expressions 'MethodAttributes.Public' to the left and to the right of the '|' operator. SyncListStructProcessor.cs 309

Copy-Paste

PVS-Studio warning: V3001 There are identical sub-expressions 'format == RenderTextureFormat.ARGBFloat' to the left and to the right of the '||' operator. RenderTextureEditor.cs 87

public static bool IsHDRFormat(RenderTextureFormat format)
{
Return (format == RenderTextureFormat.ARGBHalf ||
format == RenderTextureFormat.RGB111110Float ||
format == RenderTextureFormat.RGFloat ||
format == RenderTextureFormat.ARGBFloat ||
format == RenderTextureFormat.ARGBFloat ||
format == RenderTextureFormat.RFloat ||
format == RenderTextureFormat.RGHalf ||
format == RenderTextureFormat.RHalf);
}

I gave a piece of code, preliminary having formatted it, so the error is easily detected visually: the comparison with RenderTextureFormat.ARGBFloat is performed twice. In the original code, it looks differently:

Probably, another value of enumeration RenderTextureFormat has to be used in one of two identical comparisons.

Double work

PVS-Studio warning: V3008 CWE-563 The 'fail' variable is assigned values twice successively. Perhaps this is a mistake. Check lines: 1633, 1632. UNetWeaver.cs 1633

class Weaver
{
....
public static bool fail;
....
static public bool IsValidTypeToGenerate(....)
{
....
if (....)
{
....
Weaver.fail = true;
fail = true;
return false;
}
return true;
}
....
}

The true value is assigned twice to the value, as Weaver.fail and fail is one and the same static field of the Weaver class. Perhaps, there is no crucial error, but the code definitely needs attention.

No options

PVS-Studio warning: V3009 CWE-393 It's odd that this method always returns one and the same value of 'false'. ProjectBrowser.cs 1417

// Returns true if we should early out of OnGUI
bool HandleCommandEventsForTreeView()
{
....
if (....)
{
....
if (....)
return false;
....
}
return false;
}

The method always returns false. Pay attention to the comment in the beginning.

A developer forgot about the result

PVS-Studio warning: V3010 CWE-252 The return value of function 'Concat' is required to be utilized. AnimationRecording.cs 455

static public UndoPropertyModification[] Process(....)
{
....
}

When concatenating two arrays discardedModifications and discardedRotationModifications the author forgot to save the result. Probably a programmer assumed that the result would be expressed immediately in the array discardedModifications. But it is not so. As a result, the original array discardedModifications is returned from the method. The code needs to be corrected as follows:

static public UndoPropertyModification[] Process(....)
{
....
.ToArray();
}

Wrong variable was checked

PVS-Studio warning: V3019 CWE-697 Possibly an incorrect variable is compared to null after type conversion using 'as' keyword. Check variables 'obj', 'newResolution'. GameViewSizesMenuItemProvider.cs 104

private static GameViewSize CastToGameViewSize(object obj)
{
GameViewSize newResolution = obj as GameViewSize;
if (obj == null)
{
Debug.LogError("Incorrect input");
return null;
}
return newResolution;
}

In this method, the developers forgot to consider a situation where the variable objis not equal to null, but it will not be able to cast to the GameViewSize type. Then the variable newResolution will be set to null, and the debug output will not be made. A correct variant of code will be like this:

private static GameViewSize CastToGameViewSize(object obj)
{
GameViewSize newResolution = obj as GameViewSize;
if (newResolution == null)
{
Debug.LogError("Incorrect input");
}
return newResolution;
}

Deficiency

PVS-Studio warning: V3020 CWE-670 An unconditional 'return' within a loop. PolygonCollider2DEditor.cs 96

private void HandleDragAndDrop(Rect targetRect)
{
....
foreach (....)
{
....
if (....)
{
....
}
return;
}
....
}

The loop will execute only one iteration, after that the method terminates its work. Various scenarios are probable. For example, return must be inside the unit if, or somewhere before return, a directive continue is missing. It may well be that there is no error here, but then one should make the code more understandable.

Unreachable code

PVS-Studio warning: V3021 CWE-561 There are two 'if' statements with identical conditional expressions. The first 'if' statement contains method return. This means that the second 'if' statement is senseless CustomScriptAssembly.cs 179

public bool IsCompatibleWith(....)
{
....
if (buildingForEditor)
return IsCompatibleWithEditor();

if (buildingForEditor)
buildTarget = BuildTarget.NoTarget; // Editor
....
}

Two identical checks, following one after another. It is clear that in case of buildingForEditor equality to the true value, the second check is meaningless, because the first method terminates its work. If the value buildingForEditor is false, neither then-brunch nor if operator will be executed. There is an erroneous construction that requires correction.

Unconditional condition

PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-570 Expression 'index < 0 && index >= parameters.Length' is always false. AnimatorControllerPlayable.bindings.cs 287

public AnimatorControllerParameter GetParameter(int index)
{
AnimatorControllerParameter[] param = parameters;
if (index < 0 && index >= parameters.Length)
throw new IndexOutOfRangeException(
"Index must be between 0 and " + parameters.Length);
return param[index];
}

The condition of the index check is incorrect - the result will always be false. However, in case of passing the incorrect index to the GetParameter method, the exception IndexOutOfRangeException will still be thrown when attempting to access an array element in the return block. Although, the error message will be slightly different. One has to use || in a condition instead of the operator && so that the code worked the way a developer expected:

public AnimatorControllerParameter GetParameter(int index)
{
AnimatorControllerParameter[] param = parameters;
if (index < 0 || index >= parameters.Length)
throw new IndexOutOfRangeException(
"Index must be between 0 and " + parameters.Length);
return param[index];
}

Perhaps, due to the use of the Copy-Paste method, there is another the same error in the Unity code:

PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-570 Expression 'index < 0 && index >= parameters.Length' is always false. Animator.bindings.cs 711

And another similar error associated with the incorrect condition of the check of the array index:

PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-570 Expression 'handle.valueIndex < 0 && handle.valueIndex >= list.Length' is always false. StyleSheet.cs 81

static T CheckAccess<T>(T[] list, StyleValueType type,
StyleValueHandle handle)
{
T value = default(T);
if (handle.valueType != type)
{
Debug.LogErrorFormat(....  );
}
else if (handle.valueIndex < 0 && handle.valueIndex >= list.Length)
{
Debug.LogError("Accessing invalid property");
}
else
{
value = list[handle.valueIndex];
}
return value;
}

And in this case, a release of the IndexOutOfRangeException exception is possible.As in the previous code fragments, one has to use the operator || instead of && to fix an error.

Simply strange code

Two warnings are issued for the code fragment below.

PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-571 Expression 'bRegisterAllDefinitions || (AudioSettings.GetSpatializerPluginName() == "GVR Audio Spatializer")' is always true. AudioExtensions.cs 463

PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-571 Expression 'bRegisterAllDefinitions || (AudioSettings.GetAmbisonicDecoderPluginName() == "GVR Audio Spatializer")' is always true. AudioExtensions.cs 467

// This is where we register our built-in spatializer extensions.
static private void RegisterBuiltinDefinitions()
{
bool bRegisterAllDefinitions = true;

if (!m_BuiltinDefinitionsRegistered)
{
if (bRegisterAllDefinitions ||
(AudioSettings.GetSpatializerPluginName() ==
"GVR Audio Spatializer"))
{
}

if (bRegisterAllDefinitions ||
(AudioSettings.GetAmbisonicDecoderPluginName() ==
"GVR Audio Spatializer"))
{
}

m_BuiltinDefinitionsRegistered = true;
}
}

It looks like an incomplete method. It is unclear why it has been left as such and why developers haven't commented the useless code blocks. All, that the method does at the moment:

if (!m_BuiltinDefinitionsRegistered)
{
m_BuiltinDefinitionsRegistered = true;
}

Useless method

PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-570 Expression 'PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState() != HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Disconnected' is always false. HolographicEmulationWindow.cs 171

private void Disconnect()
{
if (PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState() !=
HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Disconnected)
PerceptionRemotingPlugin.Disconnect();
}

To clarify the situation, it is necessary to look at the declaration of the methodPerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState():

internal static HolographicStreamerConnectionState
GetConnectionState()
{
return HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Disconnected;
}

Thus, calling the Disconnect() method leads to nothing.

One more error relates to the same method PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState():

PVS-Studio warning: V3022 CWE-570 Expression 'PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState() == HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Connected' is always false. HolographicEmulationWindow.cs 177

private bool IsConnectedToRemoteDevice()
{
return PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState() ==
HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Connected;
}

The result of the method is equivalent to the following:

private bool IsConnectedToRemoteDevice()
{
return false;
}

As we can see, among the warnings V3022 many interesting ones were found. Probably, if one spends much time, he can increase the list. But let's move on.

Not on the format

PVS-Studio warning: V3025 CWE-685 Incorrect format. A different number of format items is expected while calling 'Format' function. Arguments not used: index. Physics2D.bindings.cs 2823

public void SetPath(....)
{
if (index < 0)
throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException(
String.Format("Negative path index is invalid.", index));
....
}

There is no error in code, but as the saying goes, the code "smells". Probably, an earlier message was more informative, like this: "Negative path index {0} is invalid.". Then it was simplified, but developers forgot to remove the parameter index for the method Format. Of course, this is not the same as a forgotten parameter for the indicated output string specifier, i.e. the construction of the type String.Format("Negative path index {0} is invalid."). In such a case, an exception would be thrown. But in our case we also need neatness when refactoring. The code has to be fixed as follows:

public void SetPath(....)
{
if (index < 0)
throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException(
"Negative path index is invalid.");
....
}

Substring of the substring

PVS-Studio warning: V3053 An excessive expression. Examine the substrings 'UnityEngine.' and 'UnityEngine.SetupCoroutine'. StackTrace.cs 43

static bool IsSystemStacktraceType(object name)
{
string casted = (string)name;
return casted.StartsWith("UnityEditor.") ||
casted.StartsWith("UnityEngine.") ||
casted.StartsWith("System.") ||
casted.StartsWith("UnityScript.Lang.") ||
casted.StartsWith("Boo.Lang.") ||
casted.StartsWith("UnityEngine.SetupCoroutine");
}

Search of the substring "UnityEngine.SetupCoroutine" in the condition is meaningless, because before that the search for "UnityEngine." is performed. Therefore, the last check should be removed or one has to clarify the correctness of substrings.

Another similar error:

PVS-Studio warning: V3053 An excessive expression. Examine the substrings 'Windows.dll' and 'Windows.'. AssemblyHelper.cs 84

static private bool CouldBelongToDotNetOrWindowsRuntime(string
assemblyPath)
{
return assemblyPath.IndexOf("mscorlib.dll") != -1 ||
assemblyPath.IndexOf("System.") != -1 ||
assemblyPath.IndexOf("Windows.dll") != -1 ||  // <=
assemblyPath.IndexOf("Microsoft.") != -1 ||
assemblyPath.IndexOf("Windows.") != -1 ||  // <=
assemblyPath.IndexOf("WinRTLegacy.dll") != -1 ||
assemblyPath.IndexOf("platform.dll") != -1;
}

Size does matter

PVS-Studio warning: V3063 CWE-571 A part of conditional expression is always true if it is evaluated: pageSize <= 1000. UNETInterface.cs 584

public override bool IsValid()
{
....
return base.IsValid()
&& (pageSize >= 1 || pageSize <= 1000)
&& totalFilters <= 10;
}

Condition for a check of a valid page size is erroneous. Instead of the operator ||, one has to use &&. The corrected code:

public override bool IsValid()
{
....
return base.IsValid()
&& (pageSize >= 1 && pageSize <= 1000)
&& totalFilters <= 10;
}

Possible division by zero

PVS-Studio warning: V3064 CWE-369 Potential division by zero. Consider inspecting denominator '(float)(width - 1)'. ClothInspector.cs 249

Texture2D GenerateColorTexture(int width)
{
....
for (int i = 0; i < width; i++)
colors[i] = GetGradientColor(i / (float)(width - 1));
....
}

The problem may occur when passing the value width = 1 into the method. In the method, it is not checked anyway. The method GenerateColorTexture is called in the code just once with the parameter 100:

void OnEnable()
{
if (s_ColorTexture == null)
s_ColorTexture = GenerateColorTexture(100);
....
}

So, there is no error here so far. But, just in case, in the method GenerateColorTexture the possibility of transferring incorrect width value should be provided.

PVS-Studio warning: V3080 CWE-476 Possible null dereference. Consider inspecting 'm_Parent'. EditorWindow.cs 449

public void ShowPopup()
{
if (m_Parent == null)
{
....
....
}
}

Probably, due to a typo, the execution of such code guarantees the use of the null reference m_Parent. The corrected code:

public void ShowPopup()
{
if (m_Parent != null)
{
....
....
}
}

The same error occurs later in the code:

PVS-Studio warning: V3080 CWE-476 Possible null dereference. Consider inspecting 'm_Parent'. EditorWindow.cs 470

internal void ShowWithMode(ShowMode mode)
{
if (m_Parent == null)
{
....
....
}

And here's another interesting bug that can lead to access by a null reference due to incorrect check:

PVS-Studio warning: V3080 CWE-476 Possible null dereference. Consider inspecting 'objects'. TypeSelectionList.cs 48

public TypeSelection(string typeName, Object[] objects)
{
System.Diagnostics.Debug.Assert(objects != null ||
objects.Length >= 1);
....
}

It seems to me that Unity developers quite often make errors related to misuse of operators || and && in conditions. In this case, if objects has a null value, then this will lead to a check of second part of the condition (objects != null || objects.Length >= 1), which will entail the unexpected throw of an exception. The error should be corrected as follows:

public TypeSelection(string typeName, Object[] objects)
{
System.Diagnostics.Debug.Assert(objects != null &&
objects.Length >= 1);
....
}

Early nullifying

PVS-Studio warning: V3080 CWE-476 Possible null dereference. Consider inspecting 'm_RowRects'. TreeViewControlGUI.cs 272

public override void GetFirstAndLastRowVisible(....)
{
....
if (rowCount != m_RowRects.Count)
{
m_RowRects = null;
throw new InvalidOperationException(string.Format("....",
rowCount, m_RowRects.Count));
}
....
}

In this case, the exception throw (access by the null reference m_RowRects) will happen when generating the message string for another exception. Code might be fixed, for example, as follows:

public override void GetFirstAndLastRowVisible(....)
{
....
if (rowCount != m_RowRects.Count)
{
var m_RowRectsCount = m_RowRects.Count;
m_RowRects = null;
throw new InvalidOperationException(string.Format("....",
rowCount, m_RowRectsCount));
}
....
}

One more error when checking

PVS-Studio warning: V3080 CWE-476 Possible null dereference. Consider inspecting 'additionalOptions'. MonoCrossCompile.cs 279

static void CrossCompileAOT(....)
{
....
....
}

Due to the fact that the & operator is used in a condition, the second part of the condition will always be checked, regardless of the result of the check of the first part. In case if the variable additionalOptions has the null value, the exception throw is inevitable. The error has to be corrected, by using the operator && instead of &.

As we can see, among the warnings with the number V3080 there are rather insidious errors.

Late check

PVS-Studio warning: V3095 CWE-476 The 'element' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 101, 107. StyleContext.cs 101

public override void OnBeginElementTest(VisualElement element, ....)
{
if (element.IsDirty(ChangeType.Styles))
{
....
}

if (element != null && element.styleSheets != null)
{
....
}
....
}

The variable element is used without preliminary check for null. While later in the code this check is performed. The code probably needs to be corrected as follows:

public override void OnBeginElementTest(VisualElement element, ....)
{
if (element != null)
{
if (element.IsDirty(ChangeType.Styles))
{
....
}

if (element.styleSheets != null)
{
....
}
}
....
}

In code there are 18 more errors. Let me give you a list of the first 10:

• V3095 CWE-476 The 'property' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 5137, 5154. EditorGUI.cs 5137
• V3095 CWE-476 The 'exposedPropertyTable' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 152, 154. ExposedReferenceDrawer.cs 152
• V3095 CWE-476 The 'rectObjs' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 97, 99. RectSelection.cs 97
• V3095 CWE-476 The 'm_EditorCache' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 134, 140. EditorCache.cs 134
• V3095 CWE-476 The 'setup' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 43, 47. TreeViewExpandAnimator.cs 43
• V3095 CWE-476 The 'response.job' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 88, 99. AssetStoreClient.cs 88
• V3095 CWE-476 The 'compilationTask' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 1010, 1011. EditorCompilation.cs 1010
• V3095 CWE-476 The 'm_GenericPresetLibraryInspector' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 35, 36. CurvePresetLibraryInspector.cs 35
• V3095 CWE-476 The 'Event.current' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 574, 620. AvatarMaskInspector.cs 574
• V3095 CWE-476 The 'm_GenericPresetLibraryInspector' object was used before it was verified against null. Check lines: 31, 32. ColorPresetLibraryInspector.cs 31

Wrong Equals method

PVS-Studio warning: V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. CurveEditorSelection.cs 74

public override bool Equals(object _other)
{
CurveSelection other = (CurveSelection)_other;
return other.curveID == curveID && other.key == key &&
other.type == type;
}

Overload of the Equals method was implemented carelessly. One has to take into account the possibility of obtaining null as a parameter, as this can lead to a throw of an exception, which hasn't been considered in the calling code. In addition, the situation, when _other can't be cast to the type CurveSelection, will lead to a throw of an exception. The code has to be fixed. A good example of the implementation of Object.equals overload is given in the documentation.

In the code, there are other similar errors:

• V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. SpritePackerWindow.cs 40
• V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. PlatformIconField.cs 28
• V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. ShapeEditor.cs 161
• V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. ActiveEditorTrackerBindings.gen.cs 33
• V3115 CWE-684 Passing 'null' to 'Equals' method should not result in 'NullReferenceException'. ProfilerFrameDataView.bindings.cs 60

Once again about the check for null inequality

PVS-Studio warning: V3125 CWE-476 The 'camera' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 184, 180. ARBackgroundRenderer.cs 184

protected void DisableARBackgroundRendering()
{
....
if (camera != null)
camera.clearFlags = m_CameraClearFlags;

// Command buffer
camera.RemoveCommandBuffer(CameraEvent.BeforeForwardOpaque,
m_CommandBuffer);
camera.RemoveCommandBuffer(CameraEvent.BeforeGBuffer,
m_CommandBuffer);
}

When the camera variable is used the first time, it is checked for null inequality. But further along the code the developers forget to do it. The correct variant could be like this:

protected void DisableARBackgroundRendering()
{
....
if (camera != null)
{
camera.clearFlags = m_CameraClearFlags;

// Command buffer
camera.RemoveCommandBuffer(CameraEvent.BeforeForwardOpaque,
m_CommandBuffer);
camera.RemoveCommandBuffer(CameraEvent.BeforeGBuffer,
m_CommandBuffer);
}
}

Another similar error:

PVS-Studio warning: V3125 CWE-476 The 'item' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 88, 85. TreeViewForAudioMixerGroups.cs 88

protected override Texture GetIconForItem(TreeViewItem item)
{
if (item != null && item.icon != null)
return item.icon;

if (item.id == kNoneItemID) // <=
return k_AudioListenerIcon;

return k_AudioGroupIcon;
}

An error, that in some cases leads to an access by a null link. The execution of the condition in the first block if enables the exit from the method. However, if this does not happen, then there is no guarantee that the reference item is non-zero. Here is the corrected version of the code:

protected override Texture GetIconForItem(TreeViewItem item)
{
if (item != null)
{
if (item.icon != null)
return item.icon;

if (item.id == kNoneItemID)
return k_AudioListenerIcon;
}

return k_AudioGroupIcon;
}

In the code there are 12 similar errors. Let me give you a list of the first 10:

• V3125 CWE-476 The 'element' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 132, 107. StyleContext.cs 132
• V3125 CWE-476 The 'mi.DeclaringType' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 68, 49. AttributeHelper.cs 68
• V3125 CWE-476 The 'label' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 5016, 4999. EditorGUI.cs 5016
• V3125 CWE-476 The 'Event.current' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 277, 268. HostView.cs 277
• V3125 CWE-476 The 'bpst' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 96, 92. BuildPlayerSceneTreeView.cs 96
• V3125 CWE-476 The 'state' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 417, 404. EditorGUIExt.cs 417
• V3125 CWE-476 The 'dock' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 370, 365. WindowLayout.cs 370
• V3125 CWE-476 The 'info' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 234, 226. AssetStoreAssetInspector.cs 234
• V3125 CWE-476 The 'platformProvider' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 262, 222. CodeStrippingUtils.cs 262
• V3125 CWE-476 The 'm_ControlPoints' object was used after it was verified against null. Check lines: 373, 361. EdgeControl.cs 373

The choice turned out to be small

PVS-Studio warning: V3136 CWE-691 Constant expression in switch statement. HolographicEmulationWindow.cs 261

void ConnectionStateGUI()
{
....
HolographicStreamerConnectionState connectionState =
PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState();
switch (connectionState)
{
....
}
....
}

The method PerceptionRemotingPlugin.GetConnectionState() is to blame here. We have already come across it when we were analyzing the warnings V3022:

internal static HolographicStreamerConnectionState
GetConnectionState()
{
return HolographicStreamerConnectionState.Disconnected;
}

The method will return a constant. This code is very strange. It needs to be paid attention.

## Conclusions

I think we can stop at this point, otherwise the article will become boring and overextended. Again, I listed the errors that I just couldn't miss. Sure, the Unity code contains a big number of the erroneous and incorrect constructions, that need to be fixed. The difficulty is that many of the issued warnings are very controversial and only the author of the code is able to make the exact "diagnosis" in each case.

Generally speaking about the Unity project, we can say that it is rich for errors, but taking into account the size of its code base (400 thousand lines), it's not so bad. Nevertheless, I hope that the authors will not neglect the code analysis tools to improve the quality of their product.

Use PVS-Studio and I wish you bugless code!

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We are an American based videogame development team that crafts games utilizing neural networks, handcrafted art, studio quality audio, and immersive storytelling to provide the player with an unforgettable experience. Our current team comprises of a Software Engineer, Designer, Producer, Audio Engineer, and a systems admin. Obviously we are missing an art staff! Now, that being said, we have outsourced our concept art for the game to an experienced artist. We are wanting talent to join us to take it the rest of the way with animation and art. If you are interested in joining the team and feel that you are ready to work along a committed team, send a sample of your work and contact information to kyle.cirkl@HereticArts.com.
Job Specifics:
General:
Unpaid. This is normal. We all have fulltime careers outside of the team, but if there is money to be made upon release, it will be split evenly - no questions asked.  All expenses are paid by Administrative Team (GSuite account). So no worries - We want someone to join, have fun and create with us! Expectations of meeting weekly (via internet) and taking direction from producer.  Open minded
Skill sets:
Experience in designing and creating character art.  Full adobe suite.  Maya experience preferred.  Experience with developing for the Unity Engine.  Willing to work with design team to incorporate their ideas into art.  Knowledge of game design documentation and how it pertains to art creation.  In depth sprite animation knowledge.

• GameDaily.Biz spoke to Improbable about its new shortcuts to multiplayer game development for Unity and Unreal.

Improbable helps game developers build believable online worlds with its bespoke technology, SpatialOS. Now, that task is much easier and accessible for those building games on the technology with the recent release of the SpatialOS Game Development Kit (GDK) for Unity. With these kits, Improbable hopes that developers find it easier to create vast, dynamic and unique worlds.
This GDK for Unity includes a 200-gamer, first-person project that allows developers to experiment and tinker with their ideas for what their vision of a multiplayer game will look like.
GameDaily.Biz met with Improbable’s Head of Product Marketing, Paul Thomas, and Head of Comms, Daniel Nye Griffiths, to speak about the SpatialOS GDK for Unity, as well as the upcoming launch of the SpatialOS GDK for Unreal Engine.
In its first week, the SpatialOS GDK for Unity achieved over 2,000 developer sign ups to use it. “What we're trying to do is basically make it really fast for people to build multiplayer games,” said Thomas. “It comes with all the multiplayer networking so that developers don’t have to do any multiplayer networking. It comes with feature modules to allow [easy] solutions to common multiplayer problems, like player movement and shooting. And it comes with a cool starter project where you have 200 players in a free-for-all scenario. You can obviously use the power of SpatialOS to scale that project up to more players, with NPCs, and things like that. It gives people a really good base to start building multiplayer games.”
There are several games currently in development or early access that utilize SpatialOS. The first into Early Access was Spilt Milk Studios’ Lazarus, a space MMO where the player becomes a pilot in a universe that ends every week, complete with a map that’s twice the size of Austria. Additionally, Bossa Studios released its survival exploration game Worlds Adrift into Steam Early Access earlier this year.
Also using SpatialOS is Scavengers from Midwinter Entertainment, a studio founded by former 343 Industries studio head and Halo 4 Creative Director, Josh Holmes; the game is heavily inspired by his Halo 5: Guardians’ multiplayer mode, Warzone. Right alongside that company, Berlin-based Klang Studios is working on Seed, a simulation MMO that, according to its developers, lets players “interact and collaborate to create a world driven by real emotion and aspiration.”
According to Thomas, for those looking to use the SpatialOS GDK for Unity, there is no limit to  what their games can do with Improbable’s tech.
“What we're doing is expanding the possible gameplay you can do. Traditionally, when you make a multiplayer game, you're constrained by one single server. So you can say you have a 64-player game with a handful of NPCs or you could have a world that's 3km by 3km. With Spatial, you can go beyond that, test a much broader canvas to start thinking about different gameplay.”
“You can go for a massive online persistent MMO with 10,000 players and hundreds of thousands of NPCs, something very, very vast and big like that. But you can also have smaller experiences. For example, there's a lot of interesting space in just extending what you see in the Battle Royale genre and session-based gameplay.”
Thomas continued: “Our partners at Automaton have a game in development called Mavericks. The interesting thing there is they have a Battle Royale with 1,000 people, but what I really find interesting is the gameplay mechanics they've put in, like footprints so you can track people. They've added a cool fire propagation mechanic so you can start a fire that  spreads across the map and changes the world. Or you can add destructible buildings and things like that.”
“So I think even looking at smaller scale games, we add a lot of value in terms of the new gameplay you can start adding. I'm just interested to see what people do with this extra power - what they can come up with.”
While Battle Royale games and MMOs are obvious standouts for genres that best fit with SpatialOS, Thomas introduced some other ideas of genres that could benefit from the technology.
“I also think there's a space for very interesting MMORTSs as well,” he said. “An RTS where you have persistent systems, like telling AIs to do things and then coming back to them a week later and seeing what's happened is an interesting space.”
“I also see interesting mobile experiences that could come up. Having these worlds where you lay down some interesting things and then come back a few weeks later to see how they've evolved and changed, and the massive player interaction. Say for example with Pokemon Go, we can actually roam around the world and battle on the streets. I can see something like that working very well. Again, these are just ideas we've had and talked to people about. It's about giving people that flexibility and the ability to explore these ideas.”
Klang’s Seed
Griffiths added the possibility of events in a game that will have a massive, rippling, and lasting impact on its world as something that has people excited. One example he gives is how someone on one side of the map can do something that’ll have a knock-on effect for the rest of the world in real time.
“There's a whole bunch of different angles you can take, some of which are about much larger player numbers or a much larger map, but there are other things you can do which are taking a relatively constrained game experience, a smaller map, a smaller number of players and adding richness to the game as well.”
In fact, this is something that Thomas refers to as a “persistent in memory database,” meaning that for every object in the game world, there’s a history. Two examples cited by Thomas: “...a player could chop down a tree and that tree stays disappeared forever. Or a player can kill a big monster that was raiding a town and that town no longer gets raided by that monster, and this changes the dynamics of the world. Worlds can have a history. That means players can have a lot more meaning in these MMO worlds.”
“Normally in MMOs, they're kinda like roller coaster rides: you go into a dungeon, you kill the boss and that guy respawns. It all resets,” Thomas continues. “But in Spatial MMOs, you could have these persistent effects that should change the gameplay meaningfully for all the rest of the player base.”
“The other one I think that is interesting is the level of dynamism that you could have. So because you can have so much more server-side compute, you could potentially have NPCs roaming around the world changing their mind and deciding all of a sudden, 'oh, we're going to attack this player's base' or 'we're gonna go attack this town' and they have a lot more range and emotion and intelligence to them that you'd not see in other MMOs.
“Normally in MMOs, NPCs sit there tethered. You go near them and they come and attack you, you run away, and they go back to where they were. In a Spatial MMO, that NPC can trace you across the whole map or a group of them can decide to get together and attack someone..”

Next week, Improbable plans to launch its SpatialOS GDK for Unreal Engine, which will have a big focus on ease of use for access to Unreal, as well as a big emphasis on porting your projects to SpatialOS.
“One of the things we'll be trying to push is a porting guide so you'll be able to take your existing Unreal game, move it onto SpatialOS and then you can grow to expand it with new and extra gameplay,” says Thomas. “ You can bring across your existing Unreal game and it feels very, very native and similar to Unreal if you're familiar with Unreal.”
Griffiths continued, explaining how testing these experiences includes free cloud deployments, to a certain point. “If you're developing in SpatialOS in other ways, we provide a sandbox environment so you can get your game running. When you’re happy, you can port it over and sort of experiment with it in a free sandbox environment with a small number of cores to get started.”
Based on what we learned, Improbable’s SpatialOS GDK for Unity will give developers enhanced flexibility to produce more in depth and engaging videos games. That said, we look forward to catching up with the company in the near future to see how this exciting technology is being used in the different games that we play.

• PROGRESS
Thought I'd reach out for some feedback on my little project. This is an android two-player game for top-down boxing matches. The core mechanics are all that I have accomplished thus far, later I want to add different configurations for your boxer (special effects, increased health or damage, etc) and maybe even a single player AI to practice against.

SCREENSHOTS
#1

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#2

FEEDBACK
Right now the gameplay feedback I'm looking for is on the fundamental mechanics of the game.

One area of particular concern is the window of opportunity for a player to block after their opponent has begun a punch. Currently that window is one-tenth of a second, otherwise you will be to late to counter their blow. I want it to be difficult to successfully pull off a block and have it be something that requires real attention to accomplish. I'm wondering though if it isn't too difficult right now, which may encourage mindless button mashing, which is certainly not what I want to condone.

Another consideration is whether having three main actions (block, attack, charge) provides a good balance. My idea with having three main areas is that your two thumbs will have to leave one section uncovered at all times. This should result in hand movements that telegraph actions to the opponent.

Aside from these, any other constructive criticism is very welcome.

My game can be found at the Google Play Store here:

NOTE There is a known graphics error when performing a special punch. There are no doubt other unknown errors as well.

Thank you for your time, I hope you'll be able to find some fun in this little game!

A wicked witch turned the main hero into the stone, you need to find a way to break the spell.
INSTRUCTIONS
Click on the objects and they will open.
Click on the stone and its skill to attack the animals will grow as well as a the losses from clicking on animals.
Click on the river to improve the function to manage time and clicks on the animals will be more precise.
Click on the tree and it will give you things from animals and the level of luck will grow which give you an opportunity to Harder hits.
The higher the level of monsters the more animal can visit the stone and give presents which are essential to make a portion.
Screenshots:

• A new entry in the devlog for 13 Ronin, a retro 2d samurai fighting game, this time it's about implementing the logic for the computer player.
Happy coding!