• ### Remove ads and support GameDev.net for only 3. Learn more: The New GDNet+: No Ads! • # Rendering Worlds with Two Triangles with Raytracing on the GPU in 4096 Bytes Graphics and GPU Programming Iñigo Quilez presented techniques for raytracing and distance fields in 4096 bytes on the GPU at NVSCENE 2008. Click the link below to view the presentation PDF. PDF: click here. Report Article ## User Feedback There are no comments to display. ## Create an account or sign in to comment You need to be a member in order to leave a comment ## Create an account Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy! Register a new account ## Sign in Already have an account? Sign in here. Sign In Now • Advertisement • Advertisement • ### Latest Featured Articles • 2 • 0 • 0 • 1 • 1 • ### Featured Blogs • ### Popular Now • 12 • 18 • 10 • 14 • 10 • ### Similar Content • By Josheir I have been trying to get a .obj file to load and display in three dimensions. The object is a cube. I have spent three days on this and need help, please! I have tried numerous .obj files trying to get it to work. I replaced the double slashes with single slashes in the .obj file so that the super simple loader can get the vertexes and indices. Since I am very stuck, the help would be greatly effective to my experience/learning, may I have the help, please? ALso, recently I switched the functionality from : glDrawArrays (GL_TRIANGLES, 0, 3); to lDrawElements( GL_TRIANGLES, 6, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, 0); The code is here (pastebin) https://pastebin.com/cTLuqaae The .png of the model and the .obj file are attached too. Thank you, Josheir cube100.obj • I've been experimenting with my own n-body simulation for some time and I recently discovered how to optimize it for efficient multithreading and vectorization with the Intel compiler. It did exactly the same thing after making it multithreaded and scaled very well on my ancient i7 3820 (4.3GHz). Then I changed the interleaved xy coordinates to separate arrays for x and y to eliminate the strided loads to improve AVX scaling and copy the coordinates to an interleaved array for OpenTK to render as points. Now the physics is all wrong, the points form clumps that interact with each other but they are unusually dense and accelerate faster than they decelerate causing the clumps to randomly fly off into the distance and after several seconds I get a NaN where 2 points somehow occupy exactly the same x and y float coordinates. This is the C++ DLL: #include "PPC.h" #include <thread> static const float G = 0.0000001F; const int count = 4096; __declspec(align(64)) float pointsx[count]; __declspec(align(64)) float pointsy[count]; void SetData(float* x, float* y){ memcpy(pointsx, x, count * sizeof(float)); memcpy(pointsy, y, count * sizeof(float)); } void Compute(float* points, float* velx, float* vely, long pcount, float aspect, float zoom) { #pragma omp parallel for for (auto i = 0; i < count; ++i) { auto forcex = 0.0F; auto forcey = 0.0F; for (auto j = 0; j < count; ++j) { if(j == i)continue; const auto distx = pointsx[i] - pointsx[j]; const auto disty = pointsy[i] - pointsy[j]; //if(px != px) continue; //most efficient way to avoid a NaN failure const auto force = G / (distx * distx + disty * disty); forcex += distx * force; forcey += disty * force; } pointsx[i] += velx[i] -= forcex; pointsy[i] += vely[i] -= forcey; if (zoom != 1) { points[i * 2] = pointsx[i] * zoom / aspect; points[i * 2 + 1] = pointsy[i] * zoom; } else { points[i * 2] = pointsx[i] / aspect; points[i * 2 + 1] = pointsy[i]; } /*points[i * 2] = pointsx[i]; points[i * 2 + 1] = pointsy[i];*/ } } This is the relevant part of the C# OpenTK GameWindow: private void PhysicsLoop(){ while(true){ if(stop){ for(var i = 0; i < pcount; ++i) { velx[i] = vely[i] = 0F; } } if(reset){ reset = false; var r = new Random(); for(var i = 0; i < Startcount; ++i){ do{ pointsx[i] = (float)(r.NextDouble()*2.0F - 1.0F); pointsy[i] = (float)(r.NextDouble()*2.0F - 1.0F); } while(pointsx[i]*pointsx[i] + pointsy[i]*pointsy[i] > 1.0F); velx[i] = vely[i] = 0.0F; } NativeMethods.SetData(pointsx, pointsy); pcount = Startcount; buffersize = (IntPtr)(pcount*8); } are.WaitOne(); NativeMethods.Compute(points0, velx, vely, pcount, aspect, zoom); var pointstemp = points0; points0 = points1; points1 = pointstemp; are1.Set(); } } protected override void OnRenderFrame(FrameEventArgs e){ GL.Clear(ClearBufferMask.ColorBufferBit); GL.EnableVertexAttribArray(0); GL.BindBuffer(BufferTarget.ArrayBuffer, vbo); mre1.Wait(); are1.WaitOne(); GL.BufferData(BufferTarget.ArrayBuffer, buffersize, points1, BufferUsageHint.StaticDraw); are.Set(); GL.VertexAttribPointer(0, 2, VertexAttribPointerType.Float, false, 0, 0); GL.DrawArrays(PrimitiveType.Points, 0, pcount); GL.DisableVertexAttribArray(0); SwapBuffers(); } These are the array declarations: private const int Startcount = 4096; private readonly float[] pointsx = new float[Startcount]; private readonly float[] pointsy = new float[Startcount]; private float[] points0 = new float[Startcount*2]; private float[] points1 = new float[Startcount*2]; private readonly float[] velx = new float[Startcount]; private readonly float[] vely = new float[Startcount]; Edit 0: It seems that adding 3 zeros to G increases the accuracy of the simulation but I'm at a loss as to why its different without interleaved coordinates. Edit 1: I somehow achieved an 8.3x performance increase with AVX over scalar with the new code above! • For reference I am use Unity as my game engine and the A* Pathfinding Project for path finding as there is no chance I would be able to create anything close to as performant as that in any reasonable amount of time. So I am looking to build a game that is going to have a very similar style as Prison Architect / Rim World / SimAirport / etc. One of the things that I assume is going to effect performance is path finding. Decisions about the game I have already made that I think relate to this are: 1. While I am going to be using Colliders, all of them will be trigger colliders so everything can pass through each other and I will not be use physics for anything else as it has no relevance for my game 2. I am going to want to have a soft cap at the map size being 300x300 (90,000 tiles), I might allow bigger sizes but do something like Rim World does in warning the player about possible side effect (whether it be performance or gameplay) 3. The map will be somewhat dynamic in that the user will be able to build / gather stuff from the map but outside of that, it should not change very much Now I am going to build my game around the idea that users would be in control of no more than 50 pawns at any given time (which is something I can probably enforce through the game play) but I am also going to want to have number other pawns that are AI controlled on the map (NPCs, animals, etc.) that would also need path finding enabled. Now I did a basic test in which I have X number of pawns pick a random location in the 300 x 300 map. move towards it, and then change the location every 3-5 seconds. My initial test was pretty slow (not surprising as I was calculating the path every frame for each pawn) so I decided to cache the calculated path results and only update it ever 2 seconds which got me: 100 pawns: 250 - 450 FPS 150 pawns: 160 - 300 FPS 200 pawns: 90 - 150 FPS 250 pawns: 50 - 100 FPS There is very little extra happening in the game outside of rendering the tilemap. I would imagine the most pawns on the map at a given time that need path finding might be a 1000 (and I would probably be able to make due with like 500 - 600). Now obviously I would not need all the pawn to be calculation paths every 2 seconds nor would they need to be calculating paths that are so long but even at a 5 second path refresh rate and paths that are up to 10 tiles long, I am still only able to get to about 400 pawns before I start to see some big performance issues. The issue with reducing the refresh rate is that there are going to be cases where maybe a wall is built before the pawns path is refreshed having them walk through the wall but not sure if there is a clean way to update the path only when needed. I am sure when I don't run the game in the Unity editor I will see increase performance but I am just trying to figure out what things I could be doing to make sure path finding is as smaller of a performance hit as possible as there is a lot of other simulation stuff I am going to want to run on top of the path finding. • well I am able to get my sprites to rotate and move in all directions, I have drawn two plane sprites, I am also able to shoot a bullet in the up direction, I want to shoot bullets in all directions just like my plane rotates, I just need a hint on how to proceed, go easy on me this is new stuff to me. However I am making progress. • By Gerhart Hi, I want to learn to program games for PC and maybe Android. Sorry in advance if i don't know the correct terms. The game i have in mind will be relative simple (at least that's what i hope). It should be turn based with a map and different locations the player can switch in between. At the different locations there will be simple minigames, sometimes withwith simple animations. There is a storyline, the player sometimes can chose between different outcomes. I would like to include character progression in form of attributes and an inventory and i also would like to include a battle system (turn based). I've seen that there are some flash games out there who have similiar elements as i have planned for my game. The thing is, i don't know anything about flash and read, that it's not worth it to learn it anymore. Since i have some basic skills in html and css, i thought it would be better to give html5 and javascript a try (i have to learn javascript though). But iam not sure if it's really a good choice, since all html5 games i've seen so far are either actionshooters and/or have a really crappy graphics compared to flash games. In addition to that, i have no clue if the game i want to create is possible with either flash or html5/javascript. Another issue is, that flash needs adope flash and that's about 900 a year, money i don't have at the moment. It's a while ago, since i have made something with html and css, but i remember that there where a lot of problems with compatibility and the different browsers. I assume the same problems still exist and are true for games too?
I would be really happy if someone could enlighten me, what would be the best possibilities for me to get in the gaming buisiness. What would be the best way, and what do i have to learn?